Subaqueous volcanogenic sediments in ocean basins

Author(s): Sigurdsson, H.
Volume Title: Pyroclastic volcanism and deposits of Cenozoic intermediate to felsic volcanic islands with implications for Precambrian greenstone-belt volcanoes
Volume Author(s): Ayres, L. D., editor
Source: Pyroclastic volcanism and deposits of Cenozoic intermediate to felsic volcanic islands with implications for Precambrian greenstone-belt volcanoes, edited by L. D. Ayres. Short Course Notes - Geological Association of Canada, Vol.2, p.294-342. Publisher: Geological Association of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. ISSN: 1189-6094
Note: In English. 74 refs.; illus. incl. sects., strat. cols., block diags., geol. sketch map
Summary: The extensive exploration of the ocean floors during the past two decades has gradually led to the recognition of the importance of volcanogenic clastic sediments. Sampling by drilling, piston-coring and dredging from mid-ocean ridges, ocean basins and island arc environments has shown that several distinct lithologic types of volcanogenic sediments occur. They include air-fall ash layers, hyaloclastites, pyroclastic flow deposits and turbidites with an epiclastic, pyroclastic, or hyaloclastic source, to name but a few. The generation of these deposits includes a great variety of processes, such as disruptive vesiculation of magma, spalling and granulation of magma upon quenching, and phreatomagmatic explosions. A review is presented here of the principal processes now recognized in the production, transport and deposition of volcanogenic clastic sediments in ocean basins and at mid-ocean ridges. The recent discovery of numerous hyaloclastite deposits in DSDP holes near mid-ocean ridges, hot spots and within ocean basins emphasizes the important role of basaltic volcanism in the generation of deep-sea volcanogenic sediments. Such hyaloclastites may owe their origin to either in situ granulation and spalling of lava erupted on the deep-sea floor, or they may form at the air-sea interphase on volcanic islands, during granulation, spalling and phreatomagmatic explosions, to be transported and deposited in the deep ocean by slumping, debris flows, and turbidity currents.
Year of Publication: 1982
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
Key Words: 06 Petrology, Sedimentary; Basins; Clastic sediments; DSDP Site 115; DSDP Site 386; DSDP Site 397; Dalsheidi; Deep Sea Drilling Project; East Pacific Ocean Islands; Eruptions; Europe; Evolution; Flow mechanism; Genesis; Grain size; Hawaii; Hawaii County Hawaii; Hawaii Island; IPOD; Iceland; Igneous rocks; Island arcs; Kealakomo lava delta; Kilauea; Lava; Leg 12; Leg 43; Leg 47; Makaopuhi Crater Quadrangle; Marine environment; Marine sedimentation; Mauna Kea; Mid-ocean ridges; Ocean basins; Oceania; Pillow lava; Polynesia; Processes; Pyroclastics; Sedimentary basins; Sedimentation; Sediments; Subglacial environment; Submarine environment; Tuff; Tuya; United States; Volcanic ash; Volcanic rocks; Volcaniclastics; Volcanism; Volcanology; Western Europe
Coordinates: N585424 N585424 W0210700 W0210700
N311112 N311113 W0641456 W0641457
N265042 N265042 W0151048 W0151048
Record ID: 1984056854
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2017 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from U. S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, United States