Metallic minerals on the deep seabed

Author(s): Gross, G. A.; McLeod, C. R.
Source: Paper - Geological Survey of Canada, Vol.86-21, 65p. Publisher: Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. ISSN: 0068-7650. ISBN: 0-660-12612-5 CODEN: CGSPAV
Note: In English with French summary. 227 refs. Color econ. geol. map 1:40,000,000
Summary: Seabed mineral deposits are composed mainly of Mn and Fe oxides and sulphides. A world map (1:40 000 000) shows their distribution in relation to major tectonic features. Mn nodules containing 1.7- 3.5% Cu+Ni with high Mn/Fe occur in oceanic areas where there is minimal detrital sedimentation, high biological productivity, and where hydrothermal fluids were likely sources of metals. Mn crusts containing 0.3 - 1% Co are common at depths of 800-2500 m on seamounts in the central Pacific. Metalliferous sediments are deposited by hydrothermal effusive systems that develop in the oceanic lithosphere where deep fracture zones coincide with anomalously high thermal gradients. Sulphide facies containing significant Cu, Zn, Pb, Ag, and Au are usually deposited near high- T (50-400 degrees C) hydrothermal vents, and commonly extend to siliceous oxide facies that are distal from vent sites and rich in Fe, Mn and nontronite clay or smectite.
Year of Publication: 1987
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
Key Words: 27 Economic Geology, Metals; Cobalt; Color econ. geol. map; Copper; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Distribution; Economic geology; Economic geology maps; Global; Iron; Manganese; Manganese composition; Maps; Metal ores; Metals; Mineral resources; Nickel; Nodules; Ocean floors
Coordinates: S700000 N840000 E0900000 E0900000
Record ID: 1988020757
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom