Late Pliocene and Quaternary glaciations of New Zealand

Author(s): Suggate, R. P.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
N.Z. Geol. Surv., Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Volume Title: Quaternary glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere
Volume Author(s): Clapperton, Chalmers M.
Source: Quaternary glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere, Chalmers M. Clapperton. Quaternary Science Reviews, 9(2-3), p.175-197. Publisher: Pergamon, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0277-3791
Note: In English. 112 refs.; illus. incl. 5 tables, sects., chart, strat. col., sketch map
Summary: Evidence of Late Pliocene glaciations is fragmentary. The Ross Glaciation in northwest South Island is correlated with the first marine faunal evidence of marked cooling in the Wanganui Basin in southern North Island; it is inferred to be in the 2.6-2.4 Ma age range. The Porika Glaciation, in a separate area of northwest South Island, is younger, judged by palynology, and is correlated with a cooling 2.2-2.1 Ma BP inferred from stratigraphic evidence of lowered sea level in the Wanganui Basin. A gap of 1.5 Ma in the record of glaciations is largely filled by Wanganui Basin marine sediments, although an unconformity cuts out the record between ca. 1.45 and 1.0 Ma BP; since then, the many sedimentary cycles caused by sea level changes are presumed to be glacio-eustatic in origin. Uplifted interglacial marine terraces, back to marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 17, and river terraces formed by cold- climate aggradation, are linked into the cycle sequence through loess and tephra in their cover beds. East of the South Island, cores from the DSDP Site 594 in the southwest Pacific record the earliest glaciation and, higher in the core, nine periods of South Island glaciation in the last 0.7 Ma. Onshore, because of uplift and erosion, only the last four glaciations, assigned to Oxygen Isotope Stages 10, 8, 6, and 42 are identified, being named Nemona, Waimaunga, Waimea and Otira Glaciations. They are best known in north Westland (northwest South Island) where the relations of glacial outwash and interglacial shoreline deposits are displayed. The late Otira Glaciation (Stage 2) is radiocarbon dated as beginning somewhat before 22.3 ka BP, culminating ca. 18 ka BP, and ending at ca. 14 ka BP, when rapid deglaciation began. A relatively small advance at ca. 12 ka PB may have been followed by little change until after 8.6 ka BP. Recession was then followed by a period of advance from ca. 5 ka BP until recent centuries and a subsequent recession that still continues.
Year of Publication: 1990
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
Key Words: 24 Surficial Geology, Quaternary Geology; Australasia; Biostratigraphy; C-14; Carbon; Cenozoic; Changes of level; Clastic sediments; DSDP Site 284; DSDP Site 594; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Geomorphology; Glacial extent; Glacial geology; Glaciation; IPOD; Isotopes; Leg 29; Leg 90; Neogene; New Zealand; O-18/O-16; Outwash; Oxygen; Paleoclimatology; Pliocene; Quaternary; Radioactive isotopes; Sediments; Stable isotopes; Stratigraphy; Terraces; Tertiary; Wanganui Basin
Coordinates: S403029 S403029 E1674049 E1674049
S453129 S453128 E1745653 E1745652
Record ID: 1990053008
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science), Lower Hutt, New Zealand