Composition and origin of marine ash layers and epiclastic rocks from the Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean (Legs 119 and 120)

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doi: 10.2973/odp.proc.sr.120.132.1992
Author(s): Bitschene, Peter Rene; Mehl, Klaus Wilhelm; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Ruhr Univ., Inst. Mineralogie, Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany
Other:
Univ. Louis Pasteur, France
Ocean Drilling Program, United States
Univ. Claude Bernard, France
Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst., United States
Rühr Univ. Bochum, Federal Republic of Germany
Britoil, United Kingdom
Bur. Mineral Resour., Geol. and Geophys., Australia
Ohio State Univ., United States
Univ. Toronto, Canada
Univ. Nebraska, United States
Brown Univ., United States
Kobe Univ., Japan
EAWAG/ETH, Switzerland
Alfred Wegener Inst. Polar and Mar. Res., Federal Republic of Germany
Tohoku Univ., United States
Lamont-Doherty Geol. Obs., United States
Australian Antarctic Division, Australia
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
Univ. Leicester, United Kingdom
Kyoto Univ., Japan
Univ. R. I., United States
Volume Title: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Central Kerguelen Plateau; covering Leg 120 of the cruises of the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution, Fremantle, Australia, to Fremantle, Australia, sites 747-751, 20 February to 30 April 1988; Part 1
Volume Author(s): Wise, Sherwood W., Jr.; Schlich, Roland; Palmer Julson, Amanda A.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Bitschene, Peter Rene; Blackburn, Neal A.; Breza, James R.; Coffin, Millard F.; Harwood, David M.; Heider, Franz; Holmes, Mary Anne; Howard, William R.; Inokuchi, Hiroo; Kelts, Kerry; Lazarus, David B.; Mackensen, Andreas; Maruyama, Toshiaki; Munschy, Marc; Pratson, Elizabeth Lewis; Quilty, Patrick G.; Rack, Frank; Salters, Vincent J. M.; Sevigny, James H.; Storey, Michael; Takemura, Atsushi; Watkins, David K.; Whitechurch, Hubert; Zachos, James; Barbu, Eva M.
Source: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Central Kerguelen Plateau; covering Leg 120 of the cruises of the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution, Fremantle, Australia, to Fremantle, Australia, sites 747-751, 20 February to 30 April 1988; Part 1, Sherwood W. Wise, Jr., Roland Schlich, Amanda A. Palmer Julson, Marie-Pierre Aubry, William A. Berggren, Peter Rene Bitschene, Neal A. Blackburn, James R. Breza, Millard F. Coffin, David M. Harwood, Franz Heider, Mary Anne Holmes, William R. Howard, Hiroo Inokuchi, Kerry Kelts, David B. Lazarus, Andreas Mackensen, Toshiaki Maruyama, Marc Munschy, Elizabeth Lewis Pratson, Patrick G. Quilty, Frank Rack, Vincent J. M. Salters, James H. Sevigny, Michael Storey, Atsushi Takemura, David K. Watkins, Hubert Whitechurch, James Zachos and Eva M. Barbu. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol.120, p.135-149. Publisher: Texas A & M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, United States. ISSN: 0884-5891
Note: In English. 24 refs.; illus. incl. sketch map
Summary: Epiclastic volcanogenic rocks recovered from the Kerguelen Plateau comprise (pre-)Cenomanian(?) claystones (52 m thick, Site 750); a Turonian(?) basaltic pebble conglomerate (1.2 m thick, Site 748); Danian mass flows (45 m thick, Site 747); and volcanogenic debris flows of Quaternary age at Site 736. Pyroclastic rocks comprise numerous Oligocene to Quaternary marine ash layers. The epiclastic sediments with transitional mid-ocean-ridge basalt (T-MORB) origin indicate weathering (Site 750) and erosion (Site 747) of Early Cretaceous T-MORB from a then-emergent Kerguelen Plateau, connected to Late Cretaceous tectonic events. The basal pebble conglomerate of Site 748 has an oceanic-island basalt (OIB) composition and denotes erosion and reworking of seamount to oceanic-island-type volcanic sources. The ash layers resulted from highly explosive eruptions on Kerguelen and, with less probability, Heard islands since the Oligocene. The explosive history starts with widespread Oligocene basaltic ash layers that indicate sea-level or subaerial volcanism on the northern Kerguelen Plateau. After a hiatus of 24 m.y.(?), explosive magmatic activity is inferred for the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The composition and evolution of Kerguelen Plateau ash layers resemble those from other hotspot-induced oceanic-island realms such as Iceland and Jan Mayen in the North Atlantic, and the Canary Is. archipelago in the central Atlantic. (Auth. mod.)
Year of Publication: 1992
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Ash falls; Cenozoic; Chemical composition; Clastic rocks; Distribution; Igneous rocks; Indian Ocean; Kerguelen Plateau; Leg 119; Leg 120; Major elements; Marine geology; Methods; Ocean Drilling Program; Oceanography; Oligocene; Paleogene; Petrology; Pyroclastics; Sedimentary petrology; Sedimentary rocks; Tertiary; Trace elements; Volcanic rocks; Volcaniclastics
Coordinates: S684114 S492407 E0855147 E0713936
S584302 S544838 E0811426 E0762427
Record ID: 1992037346
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from the Antarctic Bibliography, United States