Terrigenous matter and dispersed ash in sediment from the Caribbean Sea; results from Leg 165

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doi: 10.2973/odp.proc.sr.165.003.2000
Author(s): Peters, Junenette L.; Murray, Richard W.; Sparks, Joel W.; Coleman, Drew S.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Boston University, Department of Earth Sciences, Boston, MA, United States
University of Rhode Island, United States
Ocean Drilling Program, United States
University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States
Paleontological Research Institution, United States
Université de Lyon I, France
Rice University, United States
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France
GEOMAR, Federal Republic of Germany
Teikoku Oil Company, Japan
Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Denmark
Institut Mediterranéen de Technologie, France
University of Missouri, United States
Boston University, United States
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, United States
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Durham University, United Kingdom
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, United States
Bremen University, Federal Republic of Germany
Volume Title: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, scientific results, Caribbean Ocean history and the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event; covering Leg 165 of the cruises of the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution, Miami, Florida, to San Juan Puerto Rico, sites 998-1002, 19 December 1995-17 February 1996
Volume Author(s): Leckie, R. Mark; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Acton, Gary D.; Abrams, Lewis J.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Carey, Steven N.; Chaisson, William P.; Cotillon, Pierre; Cunningham, Andrew D.; D'Hondt, Steven L.; Droxler, André W.; Galbrun, Bruno; Gonzalez, Juan; Haug, Gerald H.; Kameo, Koji; King, John W.; Lind, Ida L.; Louvel, Véronique; Lyons, Timothy W.; Murray, Richard W.; Mutti, Maria; Myers, Greg; Pearce, Richard B.; Pearson, D. Graham; Peterson, Larry C.; Röhl, Ursula; Garman, Phyllis
Source: Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, scientific results, Caribbean Ocean history and the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event; covering Leg 165 of the cruises of the drilling vessel JOIDES Resolution, Miami, Florida, to San Juan Puerto Rico, sites 998-1002, 19 December 1995-17 February 1996, R. Mark Leckie, Haraldur Sigurdsson, Gary D. Acton, Lewis J. Abrams, Timothy J. Bralower, Steven N. Carey, William P. Chaisson, Pierre Cotillon, Andrew D. Cunningham, Steven L. D'Hondt, André W. Droxler, Bruno Galbrun, Juan Gonzalez, Gerald H. Haug, Koji Kameo, John W. King, Ida L. Lind, Véronique Louvel, Timothy W. Lyons, Richard W. Murray, Maria Mutti, Greg Myers, Richard B. Pearce, D. Graham Pearson, Larry C. Peterson, Ursula Röhl and Phyllis Garman. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol.165, p.115-124. Publisher: Texas A & M University, Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, United States. ISSN: 0884-5891
Note: In English. 37 refs.CD-ROM format, ISSN 1096-2514; WWW format, ISSN 1096-7451; all chapters are also available on the included CD-ROM and on the Web in PDF format; illus., incl. 1 table, sketch map
Summary: Records of long-term sediment deposition in the Caribbean Sea were recovered during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 165. Samples from the Cayman Rise (Site 998), the Colombian Basin (Site 999), and the Hess Escarpment (Site 1001) were analyzed for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) by coulometry and for selected major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrometry. These data were used to quantify in the bulk sediment the absolute concentrations of CaCO3, terrigenous matter, and dispersed ash (as opposed to discrete ash layers). The weight percent of terrigenous matter was computed using a Cr-based normative calculation, and dispersed ash content was calculated by difference; the assumption of a three component system (CaCO3, ash, and terrigenous matter) is justified by and consistent with petrographic analysis. Sites 998 and 999 broadly exhibit the same pattern of terrigenous accumulation. Both show a general decrease in terrigenous accumulation rates during the Oligocene and early Miocene, except for a sharp increase at Site 998 during the early Oligocene (30-40 Ma) and significant increases in the late Miocene and late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. The same pattern in terrigenous accumulation is recorded at Sites 925 and 929 in the Ceara Rise (Atlantic Ocean), which receives input from an Amazon River source, demonstrating that Sites 925, 929, 998, and 999 collectively provide a circum-Andean record of tectonic uplift, with the Leg 165 sites responding to inputs from the Magdelena River system. Both Sites 998 and 999 appear to be responding to South and Central American inputs, particularly after the middle Miocene; however, the variation in the terrigenous, carbonate, and dispersed ash at Site 998 point to an erosional event during the Oligocene that is apparently unique to this site's location. Dispersed ash commonly accounts for 15-20 wt% of the bulk sediment, and in some cases up to 45 wt%. The accumulation of dispersed ash typically leads the accumulation of discrete layers by 2-10 m.y. These changes in sediment composition could signify (1) the distance from the source of volcanism, (2) periods of small volume volcanic activity preceding the large eruptions, or (3) the transportation to the deep sea of terrestrially deposited ash preceding the large eruptions.
Year of Publication: 2000
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Atlantic Ocean; Calcium carbonate; Caribbean Sea; Cenozoic; Colombian Basin; Cores; Depositional environment; Leg 165; Lithostratigraphy; Marine sediments; Mass spectra; Mid-Cayman Rise; Miocene; Neogene; North Atlantic; Ocean Drilling Program; Oligocene; Paleogene; Pliocene; Sedimentation rates; Sediments; Spectra; Terrigenous materials; Tertiary; Volcanic ash; X-ray fluorescence spectra
Coordinates: N103000 N193000 W0650000 W0830000
Record ID: 2000062884
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