Global deep-sea extinctions during the Pleistocene ice ages

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doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0599:GDSEDT>2.0.CO;2
Author(s): Hayward, Bruce W.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Auckland, Department of Geology, Auckland, New Zealand
Volume Title: Geology (Boulder)
Source: Geology (Boulder), 29(7), p.599-602. Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0091-7613 CODEN: GLGYBA
Note: In English. 35 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, sketch map
Summary: The dark, near-freezing environment of the deep oceans is regarded as one of the most stable habitats on Earth, and this stability is generally reflected in the slow turnover rates (extinctions and appearances) of the organisms that live there. By far the best fossil record of deep-sea organisms is provided by the shells of benthic foraminifera (Protista). A little-known global extinction of deep-sea benthic foraminifera occurred during the Pleistocene ice ages. In the southwest Pacific, it caused the disappearance of at least two families, 15 genera, and 48 species (∼15%-25% of the fauna) of dominantly uniserial, elongate foraminifera with distinctive apertural modifications. These forms progressively died back and became extinct during glacial periods in the late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene (ca. 2.5-0.6 Ma); most extinctions occurred between 1.0 and 0.6 Ma, at the time of the middle Pleistocene climatic revolution. This first high-resolution study of this extinction event indicates that it was far more significant for deep-sea diversity loss than previously reported (10 species). The middle Pleistocene extinction was the most dramatic last phase of a worldwide decline in the abundance of these elongate forms, a phase that began during cooling near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and continued during the middle Miocene. Clearly these taxa declined when the world cooled, but the reason is yet to be resolved.
Year of Publication: 2001
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 24 Surficial Geology, Quaternary Geology; Benthic taxa; Biodiversity; Cenozoic; DSDP Site 593; DSDP Site 594; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Deep-sea environment; Extinction; Foraminifera; Glacial environment; Glaciomarine environment; Global; High-resolution methods; IPOD; Invertebrata; Leg 181; Leg 90; Marine environment; Microfossils; Morphology; ODP Site 1119; ODP Site 1120; ODP Site 1123; ODP Site 1125; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Paleoclimatology; Paleoecology; Paleotemperature; Pleistocene; Protista; Quaternary; SEM data; South Pacific; Southwest Pacific; West Pacific
Coordinates: S403029 S403028 E1674029 E1674028
S453129 S453128 E1745653 E1745652
S444520 S444520 E1722336 E1722336
S500349 S500349 E1732218 E1732218
S414710 S414710 W1712956 W1712956
S423259 S423259 W1780959 W1780959
Record ID: 2001051493
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States