Sandy fans; from Amazon to Hueneme and beyond

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doi: 10.1306/8626CACD-173B-11D7-8645000102C1865D
Author(s): Piper, David J. W.; Normark, William R.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Geological Survey of Canada-Atlantic, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
U. S. Geological Survey, United States
Volume Title: AAPG Bulletin
Source: AAPG Bulletin, 85(8), p.1407-1438. Publisher: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States. ISSN: 0149-1423 CODEN: AABUD2
Note: In English. 16 refs.; illus., incl. sects., strat. cols., 3 tables, sketch maps
Summary: Most submarine fans are supplied with both sand and mud, but these become segregated during transport, typically with the sand becoming concentrated in channels and channel-termination lobes. New data from high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP)/Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) wells from a variety of fans allow a synthesis o the architecture of those submarine fans that have important sand deposits. By analyzing architectural elements, we can better understand issues important for petroleum geology, such as the reservoir properties of the sand bodies and their lateral continuity and vertical connectivity. Our analysis of fan architecture is based principally on the Amazon and Hueneme fans, generally perceived to be classic examples of muddy and sandy systems, respectively. We recognize depositional elements, for example, channel deposits, levees, and lobes, from seismic reflection data and document sediment character in different elements from DSDP/ODP drill cores. We show the utility for petroleum geology of evaluating sandy and muddy elements rather than characterizing entire fans as sand rich or mud rich. We suggest that fan classification should include evaluation of source-sediment volumes and grain size, as well as the probable processes of turbidity-current initiation, because these factors control the character of fan elements and their response to changes in sea level, sediment supply, and autocyclic changes in channel pattern. Basin morphology, controlled by tectonics, influences overall geometry, as well as the balance between aggradation and progradation.
Year of Publication: 2001
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 06 Petrology, Sedimentary; 29 Economic Geology, Energy Sources; Aggradation; Amazon Fan; Amplitude; Astoria Canyon; Astoria Fan; Atlantic Ocean; Clastic sediments; Continental margin; Controls; Cores; Cycles; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Depositional environment; East Mediterranean; East Pacific; Elastic waves; Escanaba Trough; Geophysical methods; Geophysical profiles; Geophysical surveys; Glacial environment; Grain size; Gulf of Corinth; Gulf of Mexico; High-resolution methods; Hueneme Fan; Ionian Sea; Levees; Lithofacies; Mediterranean Sea; Mississippi Fan; Models; Mud; North Atlantic; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Petroleum; Petroleum engineering; Planar bedding structures; Processes; Progradation; Provenance; Reflection methods; Reservoir properties; Reservoir rocks; Sand; Sand bodies; Santa Monica Basin; Sea-level changes; Sediment supply; Sediment transport; Sedimentary structures; Sediments; Seismic methods; Seismic profiles; Submarine fans; Surveys; Thickness; Transpression; Turbidity current structures; Variations
Record ID: 2001067258
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, United States

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