Compositional variability in lavas from the Ontong Java Plateau; results from basalt clasts within the volcaniclastic succession at Ocean Drilling Program Site 1184

Author(s): Shafer, John T.; Neal, Clive R.; Castillo, Paterno R.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Notre Dame, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, Notre Dame, IN, United States
Other:
University of Hawaii, United States
University of Oregon, United States
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
University of California at San Diego, United States
Volume Title: Origin and evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau
Volume Author(s): Fitton, J. Godfrey, editor; Mahoney, John J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Saunders, Andrew D.
Source: Origin and evolution of the Ontong Java Plateau, edited by J. Godfrey Fitton, John J. Mahoney, Paul J. Wallace and Andrew D. Saunders. Geological Society Special Publications, Vol.229, p.333-351. Publisher: Geological Society of London, London, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0305-8719. ISBN: 1-86239-157-2 CODEN: GSLSBW
Note: In English. 52 refs.; illus., incl. 3 tables
Summary: Tholeiitic basalts have been recovered from drill sites in different locations on the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) and are remarkably homogeneous across this large igneous province. The most abundant basalt type is represented by the Kwaimbaita Formation on Malaita in the Solomon Islands, where it is capped by the isotopically distinct and slightly more incompatible-element-enriched basalt of the Singgalo Formation. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 192 drilled five sites on the OJP, four of which penetrated basement lava successions. All basalt recovered during Leg 192 is chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from Kwaimbaita-type lavas. Site 1184 of ODP Leg 192 is situated on the eastern salient of the OJP, and is unique because the recovered volcaniclastic succession contains the first conclusive evidence for emergence of part of the OJP above sea level. Within this succession are clasts of basaltic material. We report the major element-, trace-element and isotopic compositions of 14 moderately to highly altered basalt clasts. On the basis of incompatible-element concentrations, specifically high field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE), four groups of clasts are defined. Group 1 clasts are similar to basalt from the Kwaimbaita Formation. Group 2 clasts show variable composition, but the heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentrations are similar to those of basalts from the Kwaimbaita Formation. Group 3 clasts have compositions similar to the high-MgO Kroenke-type basalt recovered during ODP Leg 192. Group 4 clasts are more evolved than the Kwaimbaita or Singgalo lavas, and contain deep negative Eu and Sr anomalies on primitive-mantle (PM)-normalized diagrams, as well as high concentrations of Nb, Ta and Th. Group 4 clasts also show a large fractionation of Nb from La and have (Nb/La)PM ratios of approximately 2. Sr-, Nd-and Pb-isotope ratios were measured on five clasts covering all four groups. Although the Sr-and Pb-isotope ratios exhibit some variability, which we attribute to alteration, the Nd-isotope ratios are within the field defined for Kwaimbaita-type lavas. We conclude that most of the compositional variability displayed by these clasts is a result of alteration and that Ta appears to be the most immobile incompatible trace element. All of the clasts were derived from the mantle source that produced the Kwaimbaita-type and Kroenke-type basalts. Our data emphasize the widespread nature of Kwaimbaita-type basalt and show that the source region was active under both the eastern salient and the high plateau of the OJP.
Year of Publication: 2004
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 02 Geochemistry; 05 Petrology, Igneous and Metamorphic; Alkaline earth metals; Aptian; Basalts; Chemical composition; Chemical ratios; Clasts; Cretaceous; Igneous rocks; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Kwaimbaita Formation; Lava; Leg 192; Lower Cretaceous; Major elements; Malaita; Mantle; Melanesia; Mesozoic; Metals; Nd-144/Nd-143; Neodymium; ODP Site 1184; Ocean Drilling Program; Oceania; Ontong Java Plateau; Pacific Ocean; Petrography; Rare earths; Singgalo Formation; Solomon Islands; Sr-87/Sr-86; Stable isotopes; Strontium; Tholeiitic basalt; Trace elements; Volcanic rocks; Volcaniclastics; West Pacific
Coordinates: S050100 S050100 E1641400 E1641400
Record ID: 2006012385
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