A geologic record of competing sulfate-depletion processes within continental-rise sediments overlying methane gas hydrates of the Blake Ridge region (offshore southeastern United States)

Author(s): Borowski, W. S.; Takacs, K. G.; Thompson, M. K.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Eastern Kentucky University, Department of Earth Sciences, Richmond, KY, United States
Other:
Kentucky Geological Survey, United States
North Carolina State University, United States
Volume Title: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section, 55th annual meeting
Source: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 38(3), p.11; Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section, 55th annual meeting, Knoxville, TN, March 23-24, 2006. Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0016-7592 CODEN: GAAPBC
Note: In English
Summary: Geochemical signals locked within sediments and sedimentary rocks record geochemical processes through geologic time. Sulfide minerals (elemental sulfur, iron monosulfides, and pyrite) are formed within marine sediments as dissolved sulfide is produced by various geochemical processes, which include sulfate reduction and anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO). The concentration and sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sulfide minerals gives clues about the relative importance of these competing geochemical processes, and consequently about sedimentation rates and upward methane transport. Marine sediments of the Blake Ridge (offshore South Carolina and Georgia) contain sulfide minerals that point to AMO as an important diagenetic process both today and in the recent geological past. At the present-day methane-sulfate interface, upward-diffusing methane is consumed by reaction with downward-diffusing sulfate, producing a geochemical environment that promotes the authigenic precipitation of sulfide minerals. These sulfide minerals, mainly pyrite, are enriched in the heavy isotope of sulfur (34S), whereas solid-phase sulfide higher in the sulfate reduction zone contains more 32S. This result is consistent with larger fluxes of methane in the region derived from underlying methane gas hydrate deposits. The sedimentary record of a portion of the Blake Ridge (ODP Site 995) back to the Late Miocene (∼6.2 Ma) shows that changing depositional conditions seem to emphasize sulfate reduction over AMO in progressively older sediments. Sulfide mineral concentration changes from low baseline values (0.2 weight percent) in youthful sediments to higher values (0.4 to 0.6 wt %) in older sediments. Baseline values of δ34S also increase from -45ppm to -30ppm with increasing depth and sediment age. Geochemical conditions today favor more sulfide mineralization in association with AMO, whereas conditions in the past likely responded to higher delivery rates of sedimentary organic matter - conditions necessary to ultimately produce the amount of methane gas hydrates occurring within the Blake Ridge region.
Year of Publication: 2006
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 02 Geochemistry; 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Aliphatic hydrocarbons; Alkanes; Anaerobic environment; Atlantic Ocean; Blake-Bahama Outer Ridge; Cenozoic; Continental rise; Diagenesis; Diffusion; Eastern U.S.; Gas hydrates; Geochemistry; Georgia; Hydrocarbons; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Leg 164; Marine environment; Marine sediments; Methane; Mineral-water interface; North Atlantic; ODP Site 995; Ocean Drilling Program; Organic compounds; Oxidation; S-34/S-32; Sediments; Solution; South Carolina; Southeastern U.S.; Stable isotopes; Sulfate ion; Sulfides; Sulfur; United States; Upper Cenozoic
Coordinates: N314812 N314812 W0753118 W0753118
Record ID: 2006066018
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States