Astronomical calibration of the Paleocene time

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doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.09.016
Author(s): Westerhold, Thomas; Röhl, Ursula; Raffi, Isabella; Fornaciari, Eliana; Monechi, Simonetta; Reale, Viviana; Bowles, Julie; Evans, Helen F.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Bremen, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, Bremen, Federal Republic of Germany
Other:
Universita G. d'Annunzio di Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Universita di Padova, Italy
Universita di Firenze, Italy
University of Hawaii, United States
University of Florida, United States
Volume Title: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
Source: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 257(4), p.377-403. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0031-0182 CODEN: PPPYAB
Note: In English. With appendix. 91 refs.; illus., incl. sects., 4 tables, sketch map
Summary: The first complete cyclic sedimentary successions for the early Paleogene from drilling multiple holes have been retrieved during two ODP expeditions: Leg 198 (Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific Ocean) and Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge, SE Atlantic Ocean). These new records allow us to construct a comprehensive astronomically calibrated stratigraphic framework with an unprecedented accuracy for both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans covering the entire Paleocene epoch based on the identification of the stable long-eccentricity cycle (405-kyr). High resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanner and non-destructive core logging data from Sites 1209 through 1211 (Leg 198) and Sites 1262, 1267 (Leg 208) are the basis for such a robust chronostratigraphy. Former investigated marine (ODP Sites 1001 and 1051) and land-based (e.g., Zumaia) sections have been integrated as well. The high-fidelity chronology is the prerequisite for deciphering mechanisms in relation to prominent transient climatic events as well as completely new insights into Greenhouse climate variability in the early Paleogene. We demonstrate that the Paleocene epoch covers 24 long eccentricity cycles. We also show that no definite absolute age datums for the K/Pg boundary or the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) can be provided by now, because of still existing uncertainties in orbital solutions and radiometric dating. However, we provide two options for tuning of the Paleocene which are only offset by 405-kyr. Our orbitally calibrated integrated Leg 208 magnetostratigraphy is used to revise the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for Chron C29 to C25. We established a high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy for the South Atlantic which allows a much more detailed relative scaling of stages with biozones. The re-evaluation of the South Atlantic spreading rate model features higher frequent oscillations in spreading rates for magnetochron C28r, C27n, and C26n. Abstract Copyright (2008) Elsevier, B.V.
Year of Publication: 2008
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Algae; Atlantic Ocean; Biostratigraphy; Calibration; Cenozoic; Chronology; Chronostratigraphy; Climate change; Climate forcing; Cores; Cretaceous; Cyclostratigraphy; Greenhouse effect; K-T boundary; Leg 165; Leg 171B; Leg 198; Leg 208; Lower Paleocene; Magnetochrons; Magnetostratigraphy; Marine sediments; Mesozoic; Microfossils; Nannofossils; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; ODP Site 1001; ODP Site 1051; ODP Site 1209; ODP Site 1210; ODP Site 1211; ODP Site 1262; ODP Site 1267; Ocean Drilling Program; Orbital forcing; PETM; Pacific Ocean; Paleocene; Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum; Paleoclimatology; Paleogene; Paleomagnetism; Plantae; Sedimentation; Sedimentation rates; Sediments; Shatsky Rise; South Atlantic; Spectra; Stratigraphic boundary; Tertiary; Time scales; Upper Cretaceous; Walvis Ridge; West Pacific; X-ray fluorescence spectra
Coordinates: N320000 N323900 E1583100 E1575100
S271100 S271100 E0013500 E0013400
S280600 S280600 E0014300 E0014200
Record ID: 2008071818
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2017 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands