Ocean overturning since the Late Cretaceous; inferences from a new benthic foraminiferal isotope compilation

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doi: 10.1029/2008PA001683
Author(s): Cramer, B. S.; Toggweiler, J. R.; Wright, J. D.; Katz, M. E.; Miller, K. G.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Oregon, Department of Geological Sciences, Eugene, OR, United States
Other:
NOAA, United States
Rutgers State University of New Jersey, United States
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, United States
Volume Title: Paleoceanography
Source: Paleoceanography, 24(4). Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0883-8305 CODEN: POCGEP
Note: In English. NSF Grant OCE-06-23256. 103 refs.; illus.
Summary: Benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic (δ18O) and carbon isotopic (δ13C) trends, constructed from compilations of data series from multiple ocean sites, provide one of the primary means of reconstructing changes in the ocean interior. These records are also widely used as a general climate indicator for comparison with local and more specific marine and terrestrial climate proxy records. We present new benthic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C compilations for individual ocean basins that provide a robust estimate of benthic foraminiferal stable isotopic variations to ∼80 Ma and tentatively to ∼110 Ma. First-order variations in interbasinal isotopic gradients delineate transitions from interior ocean heterogeneity during the Late Cretaceous (>∼65 Ma) to early Paleogene (35-65 Ma) homogeneity and a return to heterogeneity in the late Paleogene-early Neogene (35-0 Ma). We propose that these transitions reflect alterations in a first-order characteristic of ocean circulation: the ability of winds to make water in the deep ocean circulate. We document the initiation of large interbasinal δ18O gradients in the early Oligocene and link the variations in interbasinal δ18O gradients from the middle Eocene to Oligocene with the increasing influence of wind-driven mixing due to the gradual tectonic opening of Southern Ocean passages and initiation and strengthening of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The role of wind-driven upwelling, possibly associated with a Tethyan Circumequatorial Current, in controlling Late Cretaceous interior ocean heterogeneity should be the subject of further research.
Year of Publication: 2009
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 02 Geochemistry; 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Angola Basin; Atlantic Ocean; Benthic taxa; Blake Nose; Blake Plateau; C-13/C-12; Cape Basin; Carbon; Ceara Rise; Cenozoic; Chemostratigraphy; Cretaceous; DSDP Site 289; DSDP Site 310; DSDP Site 317; DSDP Site 334; DSDP Site 366; DSDP Site 38; DSDP Site 384; DSDP Site 397; DSDP Site 401; DSDP Site 408; DSDP Site 410; DSDP Site 517; DSDP Site 518; DSDP Site 522; DSDP Site 523; DSDP Site 525; DSDP Site 526; DSDP Site 527; DSDP Site 528; DSDP Site 529; DSDP Site 549; DSDP Site 552; DSDP Site 553; DSDP Site 554; DSDP Site 555; DSDP Site 574; DSDP Site 607; DSDP Site 608; DSDP Site 77; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Demerara Rise; East Pacific; Equatorial Atlantic; Equatorial Pacific; Foraminifera; Hess Rise; IPOD; Invertebrata; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Juan de Fuca Ridge; Kerguelen Plateau; Leg 108; Leg 111; Leg 119; Leg 125; Leg 130; Leg 138; Leg 139; Leg 154; Leg 159; Leg 162; Leg 171B; Leg 177; Leg 198; Leg 199; Leg 207; Leg 30; Leg 32; Leg 33; Leg 37; Leg 41; Leg 43; Leg 47; Leg 48; Leg 49; Leg 5; Leg 72; Leg 73; Leg 74; Leg 80; Leg 81; Leg 85; Leg 9; Leg 94; Manihiki Plateau; Marine environment; Mesozoic; Microfossils; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; North Atlantic; North Pacific; Northeast Atlantic; Northeast Pacific; Northwest Atlantic; Northwest Pacific; O-18/O-16; ODP Site 1051; ODP Site 1089; ODP Site 1092; ODP Site 1209; ODP Site 1218; ODP Site 1258; ODP Site 1260; ODP Site 667; ODP Site 677; ODP Site 744; ODP Site 784; ODP Site 803; ODP Site 806; ODP Site 846; ODP Site 849; ODP Site 855; ODP Site 925; ODP Site 926; ODP Site 959; ODP Site 961; ODP Site 983; Ocean Drilling Program; Ontong Java Plateau; Oxygen; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Paleoenvironment; Protista; Reykjanes Ridge; Rio Grande Rise; Rockall Plateau; Shatsky Rise; Sierra Leone Rise; South Atlantic; South Pacific; Southeast Pacific; Southern Ocean; Southwest Pacific; Stable isotopes; Upper Cretaceous; Vema Channel; Walvis Ridge; West Atlantic; West Pacific
Coordinates: N560233 N563342 W0204655 W0233142
N632237 N632238 W0285442 W0285443
S002956 S002955 E1583042 E1583041
N365206 N365207 E1765406 E1765405
Record ID: 2010081942
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