KNOX-02RR; drilling site survey; life in subseafloor sediments of the South Pacific Gyre

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doi: 10.2204/iodp.proc.329.112.2011
Author(s): D'Hondt, Steven; Abrams, L. J.; Anderson, R.; Dorance, J.; Durbin, A.; Ellett, L.; Ferdelman, Timothy; Fischer, J.; Forschner, S.; Fuldauer, R.; Goldstein, H.; Graham, D.; Griffith, W.; Halm, H.; Harris, Robert N.; Harrison, B.; Hasiuk, F.; Horn, G.; Kallmeyer, Jens; Lever, M.; Meyer, J.; Morse, L.; Moser, C.; Murphy, B.; Nordhausen, A.; Parry, L.; Pockalny, R.; Puschell, A.; Rogers, J.; Schrum, H.; Smith, D. C.; Soffientino, B.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Stancin, A.; Steinman, M.; Walczak, P.
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 329 Scientific Party, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansetti, RI, United States
Other:
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, United States
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, United States
Dalhousie University, Canada
Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany
Max-Planck-Institute of Marine Microbiology, Germany
Aarhus Universitet, Denmark
Oregon State University, United States
Minnesota State University-Mankato, United States
Hanyang University, South Korea
University of Potsdam, Germany
Yonsei University, South Korea
University of Melbourne, Australia
Shizuoka University, Japan
Boston University, United States
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Kyushu University, Japan
Hiroshima University, Japan
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
University of Bergen, Norway
AIST/Geological Survey of Japan, Japan
Dublin City University, Ireland
IFREMER, France
Chiba University, Japan
University of Tokyo, Japan
Chinese Academy of Sciencesa, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, China
Ocean University of China, China
University of Southern California, United States
University of North Carolina-Wilmington, United States
Carleton College, United States
University of California-San Diego, United States
University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, United States
Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Germany
Florida Institute of Technology, United States
Carroll High School, United States
California Institute of Technology, United States
University of Michigan, United States
Volume Title: Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; South Pacific gyre subseafloor; Expedition 329 of the riserless drilling platform; Papeete, Tahiti, to Auckland, New Zealand Sites U1365-U1371, 9 October-13 December 2010
Volume Author(s): D'Hondt, Steven; Inagaki, Fumio; Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos; Evans, Helen; Dubois, Nathalie; Engelhardt, Tim; Ferdelman, Timothy; Gribsholt, Britta; Harris, Robert N.; Hoppie, Bryce W.; Hyun, Jung-Ho; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kim, Jinwook; Lynch, Jill E.; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Morono, Yuki; Murray, Richard W.; Reese, Brandi K.; Shimono, Takaya; Shiraishi, Fumito; Smith, David C.; Smith-Duque, Christopher E.; Spivack, Arthur J.; Steinsbu, Bjorn Olav; Suzuki, Yohey; Szpak, Michal; Toffin, Laurent; Uramoto, Goichiro; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiko; Zhang Guoliang; Zhang Xiaohua; Ziebis, Wiebke
Source: Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; South Pacific gyre subseafloor; Expedition 329 of the riserless drilling platform; Papeete, Tahiti, to Auckland, New Zealand Sites U1365-U1371, 9 October-13 December 2010, Steven D'Hondt, Fumio Inagaki, Carlos Alvarez Zarikian, Helen Evans, Nathalie Dubois, Tim Engelhardt, Timothy Ferdelman, Britta Gribsholt, Robert N. Harris, Bryce W. Hoppie, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jens Kallmeyer, Jinwook Kim, Jill E. Lynch, Satoshi Mitsunobu, Yuki Morono, Richard W. Murray, Brandi K. Reese, Takaya Shimono, Fumito Shiraishi, David C. Smith, Christopher E. Smith-Duque, Arthur J. Spivack, Bjorn Olav Steinsbu, Yohey Suzuki, Michal Szpak, Laurent Toffin, Goichiro Uramoto, Yasuhiko Yamaguchi, Zhang Guoliang, Zhang Xiaohua and Wiebke Ziebis; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 329 Scientific Party, College Station, TX. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Vol.332, 82p. Publisher: IODP Management International, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 1930-1014
Note: In English. 31 refs.; illus., incl. 15 tables, sketch map
Summary: The middle of the South Pacific Gyre is farther from continents and productive oceanic zones than any other site on Earth. To understand the nature of life in the most oxidized and food-limited subseafloor sediments, Cruise KNOX-02RR surveyed and cored sediment at ten sites throughout the South Pacific Gyre and one site at the southern margin of the gyre. Sediment at all of the South Pacific Gyre sites accumulated extraordinarily slowly for millions of years (0.1-1 m/m.y.). Shipboard scientific results indicate that South Pacific Gyre sediments contain a living community characterized by very low biomass and very low metabolic activity. At every depth in the cored South Pacific Gyre sediments, cell abundances are 2-6 orders of magnitude lower than at the same depths in all previously explored subseafloor communities. The net rate of respiration by the subseafloor sedimentary community at each gyre site is 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the rates of subseafloor communities at previously explored sites. Because of the low rates of respiration, interstitial waters are oxic throughout the upper sediment column in most of this region. Consequently, the subseafloor sedimentary community of this region is predominantly aerobic to more than 8 m below the seafloor, unlike previously explored subseafloor communities. Generation of hydrogen by radiolysis of water may be a significant food source for this subseafloor community.
Year of Publication: 2011
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; 20 Geophysics, Applied; Basalts; Biochemistry; Biota; Body waves; Communities; Cores; Density; Dissolved oxygen; Ecology; Elastic waves; Geochemistry; Geophysical methods; Geophysical surveys; Habitat; Hydrochemistry; Igneous rocks; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Magnetic properties; Magnetic susceptibility; Marine sediments; Metabolism; Microorganisms; Nodules; Oxygen; P-waves; Pacific Ocean; Paleomagnetism; Physical properties; Pore water; Sea water; Sedimentation; Sedimentation rates; Sediments; Seismic waves; Solutes; South Pacific; Surveys; Thermal conductivity; Velocity; Volcanic rocks
Coordinates: S274000 S235100 W1173400 W1653900
Record ID: 2012014434
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