Correlation of the oldest Toba Tuff to sediments in the central Indian Ocean basin

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doi: 10.1007/s12040-010-0027-4
Author(s): Pattan, J. N.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Babu, E. V. S. S. K.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India
National Geophysical Research Institute, India
Volume Title: Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Earth and Planetary Sciences
Source: Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences: Earth and Planetary Sciences, 119(4), p.531-539. Publisher: Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, India. ISSN: 0253-4126 CODEN: PISAA7
Note: In English. 32 refs.; illus., incl. 1 plate, 2 tables, sketch map
Summary: We have identified an ash layer in association with Australasian microtektites of ∼0.77 Ma old in two sediment cores which are ∼450 km apart in the central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Morphology and chemical composition of glass shards and associated microtektites have been used to trace their provenance. In ODP site 758 from Ninetyeast Ridge, ash layer-D (13 cm thick, 0.73-0.75 Ma) and layer-E (5 cm thick, 0.77-0.78 Ma) were previously correlated to the oldest Toba Tuff (OTT) eruptions of the Toba caldera, Sumatra. In this investigation, we found tephra ∼3100 km to the southwest of Toba caldera that is chemically identical to layer D of ODP site 758 and ash in the South China Sea correlated to the OTT. Layer E is not present in the CIOB or other ocean basins. The occurrence of tephra correlating to layer D suggests a widespread distribution of OTT tephra (∼3.6 × 107km2), an ash volume of at least ∼1800km3, a total OTT volume of 2300 km3, and classification of the OTT eruption as a super-eruption. Copyright 2010 Indian Academy of Sciences
Year of Publication: 2010
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 24 Surficial Geology, Quaternary Geology; Cenozoic; Correlation; Igneous rocks; Indian Ocean; Leg 121; Microtektites; Ninetyeast Ridge; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; ODP Site 758; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Paleogeography; Pyroclastics; Quaternary; South China Sea; Super eruptions; Tektites; Toba Tuff; Tuff; Volcanic rocks; West Pacific
Coordinates: N052302 N052303 E0902141 E0902140
Record ID: 2012072463
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