IODP Expedition 330; Drilling the Louisville Seamount Trail in the SW Pacific

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doi: 10.2204/iodp.sd.15.02.2013
Author(s): Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu; Geldmacher, Jörg; Anderson, Louise; Beier, Christoph; Buchs, David M.; Chen, Li-Hui; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Deschamps, Fabien; Dorais, Michael J.; Ebuna, Daniel; Ehmann, Sebastian; Fitton, J. Godfrey; Fulton, Patrick M.; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan; Gee, Jeffrey S.; Hamelin, Cedric; Hanyu, Takeshi; Hoshi, Hiroyuki; Kalnins, Lara; Kell, Johnathon; Machida, Shiki; Mahoney, John J.; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Pressling, Nicola; Rausch, Svenja; Sano, Shin-ichi; Sylvan, Jason B.; Williams, Rebecca
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 330 Scientists, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Oregon State University, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Corvallis, OR, United States
Other:
University of Tokyo, Japan
Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany
Volume Title: Scientific Drilling
Source: Scientific Drilling, Vol.15, p.11-22. Publisher: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International, Sapporo; Washington, DC, International. ISSN: 1816-8957
Note: In English. 45 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table, sketch map
Summary: Deep-Earth convection can be understood by studying hotspot volcanoes that form where mantle plumes rise up and intersect the lithosphere, the Earth's rigid outer layer. Hotspots characteristically leave age-progressive trails of volcanoes and seamounts on top of oceanic lithosphere, which in turn allow us to decipher the motion of these plates relative to "fixed" deep-mantle plumes, and their (isotope) geochemistry provides insights into the long-term evolution of mantle source regions. However, it is strongly suggested that the Hawaiian mantle plume moved ∼15° south between 80 and 50 million years ago. This raises a fundamental question about other hotspot systems in the Pacific, whether or not their mantle plumes experienced a similar amount and direction of motion. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 330 to the Louisville Seamounts showed that the Louisville hotspot in the South Pacific behaved in a different manner, as its mantle plume remained more or less fixed around 48°S latitude during that same time period. Our findings demonstrate that the Pacific hotspots move independently and that their trajectories may be controlled by differences in subduction zone geometry. Additionally, shipboard geochemistry data shows that, in contrast to Hawaiian volcanoes, the construction of the Louisville Seamounts doesn't involve a shield-building phase dominated by tholeiitic lavas, and trace elements confirm the rather homogenous nature of the Louisville mantle source. Both observations set Louisville apart from the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount trail, whereby the latter has been erupting abundant tholeiites (characteristically up to 95% in volume) and which exhibit a large variability in (isotope) geochemistry and their mantle source components
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 18 Geophysics, Solid-Earth; Basement; Boreholes; Cenozoic; Convection; Cores; Cretaceous; Crust; East Pacific; Expedition 330; Hot spots; IODP Site U1372; IODP Site U1373; IODP Site U1374; IODP Site U1375; IODP Site U1376; IODP Site U1377; Igneous rocks; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Louisville Ridge; Mantle; Mantle plumes; Marine sediments; Mesozoic; Ocean floors; Oceanic crust; Pacific Ocean; Paleogene; Paleolatitude; Paleomagnetism; Plate tectonics; Seamounts; Sediments; South Pacific; Southeast Pacific; Tertiary; Volcanic rocks
Coordinates: S262936 S262936 W1744345 W1744345
S283353 S283353 W1731651 W1731651
S283545 S283545 W1732250 W1732250
S334151 S334151 W1712700 W1712700
S321303 S321303 W1715250 W1715250
S381115 S381115 W1683816 W1683816
Record ID: 2013047785
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