Stable carbon isotope patterns of marine biomarker lipids in the Arctic Ocean during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2

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doi: 10.1029/2010PA002028
Author(s): Schoon, Petra L.; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Marine Organic Biogeochemistry, Den Burg, Netherlands
Other:
Utrecht University, Netherlands
Volume Title: Paleoceanography
Source: Paleoceanography, 26(3). Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0883-8305 CODEN: POCGEP
Note: In English. 96 refs.; illus., incl. 4 tables
Summary: The middle Paleocene through early Eocene long-term gradual warming was superimposed by several transient warming events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2). Both events show evidence for extreme global warming associated with a major injection of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, but the mechanisms of carbon injection and many aspects of the environmental response are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the concentration and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) composition of several sulfur-bound biomarkers derived from marine photoautotrophs, deposited in the Arctic Ocean at ∼85°N, during ETM2. The presence of sulfur-bound biomarkers across this event points toward high primary productivity and anoxic bottom water conditions. The previously reported presence of isorenieratene derivatives indicates euxinic conditions in the photic zone, likely caused by a combination of enhanced primary productivity and salinity stratification. The negative carbon isotope excursion measured at the onset of ETM2 for several biomarkers, ranges between 3 ppm and 4.5 ppm, much larger than the ∼1.4 ppm recorded in marine carbonates elsewhere, suggesting substantial enhanced isotopic fractionation by the primary producers likely due to a significant rise in pCO2. In the absence of biogenic carbonates in the ETM2 section of our core we use coeval planktonic δ13C from elsewhere to estimate surface water δ13C in the Arctic Ocean and then apply the relation between isotopic fractionation and pCO2, originally calibrated for haptophyte alkenones, to three selected organic biomarkers (i.e., S-bound phytane, C35 hopane, and a C25 highly branched isoprenoid). This yields pCO2 values potentially in the range of four times preindustrial levels. However, these estimates are uncertain because of a lack of knowledge on the importance of pCO2 on photosynthetic isotopic fractionation.
Year of Publication: 2011
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 02 Geochemistry; 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Arctic Coring EXpedition; Arctic Ocean; Biomarkers; C-13/C-12; Carbon; Carbon dioxide; Cenozoic; Chemical composition; Eocene; Eocene Thermal Maximum 2; Expedition 302; Greenhouse effect; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Lipids; Lomonosov Ridge; Marine environment; Organic compounds; Paleoclimatology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Paleogeography; Stable isotopes; Tertiary
Coordinates: N875100 N875600 E1393300 E1361000
Record ID: 2013092116
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by, and/or abstract, Copyright, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
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100 1 |a Schoon, Petra L.  |u Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Marine Organic Biogeochemistry, Den Burg 
245 1 0 |a Stable carbon isotope patterns of marine biomarker lipids in the Arctic Ocean during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 
300 |a Citation PA3215 
500 |a In English. 96 refs. 
500 |a Research program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program 
500 |a Affiliation: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Marine Organic Biogeochemistry; Den Burg; NLD; Netherlands 
500 |a Affiliation: Utrecht University; ; NLD; Netherlands 
500 |a Source note: Paleoceanography, 26(3). Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0883-8305 
500 |a Publication type: journal article 
504 |b 96 refs. 
510 3 |a GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by, and/or abstract, Copyright, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States 
520 |a The middle Paleocene through early Eocene long-term gradual warming was superimposed by several transient warming events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2). Both events show evidence for extreme global warming associated with a major injection of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, but the mechanisms of carbon injection and many aspects of the environmental response are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the concentration and stable carbon isotopic (δ>13`C) composition of several sulfur-bound biomarkers derived from marine photoautotrophs, deposited in the Arctic Ocean at ∼85°N, during ETM2. The presence of sulfur-bound biomarkers across this event points toward high primary productivity and anoxic bottom water conditions. The previously reported presence of isorenieratene derivatives indicates euxinic conditions in the photic zone, likely caused by a combination of enhanced primary productivity and salinity stratification. The negative carbon isotope excursion measured at the onset of ETM2 for several biomarkers, ranges between 3 ppm and 4.5 ppm, much larger than the ∼1.4 ppm recorded in marine carbonates elsewhere, suggesting substantial enhanced isotopic fractionation by the primary producers likely due to a significant rise in pCO<2`. In the absence of biogenic carbonates in the ETM2 section of our core we use coeval planktonic δ>13`C from elsewhere to estimate surface water δ>13`C in the Arctic Ocean and then apply the relation between isotopic fractionation and pCO<2`, originally calibrated for haptophyte alkenones, to three selected organic biomarkers (i.e., S-bound phytane, C<35` hopane, and a C<25` highly branched isoprenoid). This yields pCO<2` values potentially in the range of four times preindustrial levels. However, these estimates are uncertain because of a lack of knowledge on the importance of pCO<2` on photosynthetic isotopic fractionation. 
650 7 |a Arctic Coring EXpedition  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Biomarkers  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a C-13/C-12  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Carbon  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Carbon dioxide  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Cenozoic  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Chemical composition  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Eocene  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Greenhouse effect  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Integrated Ocean Drilling Program  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Isotope ratios  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Isotopes  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Lipids  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Marine environment  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Organic compounds  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Paleoclimatology  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Paleoenvironment  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Paleogene  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Paleogeography  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Stable isotopes  |2 georeft 
650 7 |a Tertiary  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Arctic Ocean  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Expedition 302  |2 georeft 
651 7 |a Lomonosov Ridge  |2 georeft 
653 |a Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 
700 1 |a Sluijs, Appy, 
700 1 |a Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S., 
700 1 |a Schouten, Stefan, 
773 0 |t Paleoceanography  |d Washington, DC : American Geophysical Union, Sep. 2011  |x 0883-8305  |y POCGEP  |n Paleoceanography, 26(3). Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0883-8305 Publication type: journal article  |g Vol. 26, no. 3  |h illus., incl. 4 tables 
856 |u urn:doi: 10.1029/2010PA002028