Subseafloor biosphere of the Canterbury Basin

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doi: 10.1180/minmag.2013.077.5.3
Author(s): Ciobanu, M. C.; Burgaud, G.; Dufresne, A.; Breuker, A.; Redou, V.; Ben Maamar, S.; Gaboyer, F.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Lipp, J. S.; Schippers, A.; Vandenkoornhuyse, P.; Barbier, G.; Jebbar, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea, Plouzane, France
École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Agroalimentaire de Bretagne, France
Université Rennes I, France
Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Germany
University of Bremen, Germany
Volume Title: Goldschmidt abstracts 2013
Source: Mineralogical Magazine, 77(5), p.890; Goldschmidt 2013, Florence, Italy, Aug. 25-30, 2013. Publisher: Mineralogical Society, London, United Kingdom. ISSN: 0026-461X CODEN: MNLMBB
Note: In English
Summary: The subseafloor microbiota is diverse and complex, hosting metabolically active communities down to depths of more than 1000 meters below the seafloor (mbsf), as revealed by molecular and metagenomic studies. It harbors representatives from the three domains of life, i.e., numerous endemic and/or as yet uncultured Archaea and Bacteria, in addition to bacterial endospores, protists and fungi belonging to Eukarya. Although background molecular data on bacterial and archaeal lineages inhabiting subsurface sediment above 1000 mbsf exists, most deep-subsurface microorganisms detected so far were refractory to cultivation. Deeply buried microorganisms form an almost untapped diversity, as sub-sea-floor prokaryotic culturability in most studies is less than 0.1% of all microscopically detected cells. So far, active prokaryotes have been discovered down to 1626 mbsf, and microeukaryotes down to 113 mbsf, but the lower limit of the deep subsurface biosphere remains elusive. Here we report on the microbial prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities of a core of nearly 2 km collected in the Canterbury basin during IODP Expedition 317. A very stringent high-throughput 454-pyrosequencing approach targeting the 16S/18S rRNA genes for Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, along with real-time PCR analysis (genetic markers and functional genes), cell counts and cultures, were performed to assess microbial abundance, diversity and activity at different depths. Our results suggest that a diversity of microorganisms exists down to 1922 mbsf in the seafloor of the Canterbury basin and that this diversity is to a certain extent alive.
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; 22 Environmental Geology; Biochemistry; Biodiversity; Biosphere; Canterbury Basin; Communities; Ecology; Ecosystems; Expedition 317; Geochemistry; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Marine geology; Microorganisms; Pacific Ocean; Sampling; South Pacific; Southwest Pacific; West Pacific
Coordinates: S445700 S444600 E1720200 E1714000
Record ID: 2014005671
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Abstract, Copyright, Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland