Low coseismic friction on the Tohoku-Oki Fault determined from temperature measurements

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doi: 10.1126/science.1243641
Author(s): Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, Emily E.; Kano, Y.; Mori, James J.; Chester, Frederick M.; Ishikawa, T.; Harris, R. N.; Lin, W.; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Toczko, Sean
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of California at Santa Cruz, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Santa Cruz, CA, United States
Other:
Kyoto University, Japan
Texas A&M University, United States
Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan
Oregon State University, United States
Volume Title: Science
Source: Science, 342(6163), p.1214-1217. Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 0036-8075 CODEN: SCIEAS
Note: In English. 20 refs.; illus.
Summary: The frictional resistance on a fault during slip controls earthquake dynamics. Friction dissipates heat during an earthquake; therefore, the fault temperature after an earthquake provides insight into the level of friction. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343 and 343T) installed a borehole temperature observatory 16 months after the March 2011 moment magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake across the fault where slip was ∼50 meters near the trench. After 9 months of operation, the complete sensor string was recovered. A 0.31°C temperature anomaly at the plate boundary fault corresponds to 27 megajoules per square meter of dissipated energy during the earthquake. The resulting apparent friction coefficient of 0.08 is considerably smaller than static values for most rocks.
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 16 Structural Geology; 19 Geophysics, Seismology; Active faults; Asia; Controls; Coseismic processes; Dynamics; Earthquakes; Expedition 343; Expedition 343T; Far East; Faults; Friction; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Japan; Japan Trench; Magnitude; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Pacific Ocean; Plate boundaries; Plate tectonics; Rupture; Slip rates; Temperature; Tohoku-Oki Fault; Tohoku-Oki earthquake 2011; West Pacific
Coordinates: N375619 N375620 E1435449 E1435447
Record ID: 2014014652
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