Expedition 342 summary

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doi: 10.2204/iodp.proc.342.101.2014
Author(s): Norris, Richard D.; Wilson, Paul A.; Blum, Peter; Fehr, Annick; Agnini, Claudia; Bornemann, André; Boulila, Slah; Bown, Paul R.; Cournede, Cecile; Friedrich, Oliver; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Hollis, Christopher J.; Hull, Pincelli M.; Jo, Kyoungnam; Junium, Christopher K.; Kaneko, Masanori; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter C.; Liu Zhonghui; Matsui, Hiroki; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Opdyke, Bradley N.; Penman, Donald; Romans, Brian; Scher, Howie D.; Sexton, Philip; Takagi, Haruka; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Whiteside, Jessica H.; Yamaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Yamamoto, Yuhji
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 342 Scientists, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United States
Other:
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
Texas A&M University, United States
Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Germany
Stockholm University, Sweden
Universität Leipzig, Germany
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, France
University College London, United Kingdom
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
University of Frankfurt, Germany
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, India
Volume Title: Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Paleogene Newfoundland sediment drifts and MDHDS test; Expedition 342 of the riserless drilling platform, St. George, Bermuda, to St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada); Sites U1402-U1411, 2 June-1 August 2012
Volume Author(s): Norris, Richard D.; Wilson, Paul A.; Blum, Peter; Fehr, Annick; Agnini, Claudia; Bornemann, André; Boulila, Slah; Bown, Paul R.; Cournede, Cecile; Friedrich, Oliver; Ghosh, Amit Kumar; Hollis, Christopher J.; Hull, Pincelli M.; Jo, Kyoungnam; Junium, Christopher K.; Kaneko, Masanori; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter C.; Liu Zhonghui; Matsui, Hiroki; Moriya, Kazuyoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Opdyke, Bradley N.; Penman, Donald; Romans, Brian; Scher, Howie D.; Sexton, Philip; Takagi, Haruka; Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Whiteside, Jessica H.; Yamaguchi, Tatsuhiko; Yamamoto, Yuhji
Source: Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Paleogene Newfoundland sediment drifts and MDHDS test; Expedition 342 of the riserless drilling platform, St. George, Bermuda, to St. John's, Newfoundland (Canada); Sites U1402-U1411, 2 June-1 August 2012, Richard D. Norris, Paul A. Wilson, Peter Blum, Annick Fehr, Claudia Agnini, André Bornemann, Slah Boulila, Paul R. Bown, Cecile Cournede, Oliver Friedrich, Amit Kumar Ghosh, Christopher J. Hollis, Pincelli M. Hull, Kyoungnam Jo, Christopher K. Junium, Masanori Kaneko, Diederik Liebrand, Peter C. Lippert, Liu Zhonghui, Hiroki Matsui, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Hiroshi Nishi, Bradley N. Opdyke, Donald Penman, Brian Romans, Howie D. Scher, Philip Sexton, Haruka Takagi, Sandra Kirtland Turner, Jessica H. Whiteside, Tatsuhiko Yamaguchi and Yuhji Yamamoto; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 342 Scientists, College Station, TX. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (Online), Vol.342, 149p. Publisher: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International for the Integrated Drilling Program (IODP), Washington, DC, United States. ISSN: 1930-1014 CODEN: IDSDA6
Note: In English. 279 refs.; illus., incl. 2 tables, sects.
Summary: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 342 was designed to recover Paleogene sedimentary sequences with unusually high deposition rates across a wide range of water depths (Sites U1403-U1411). The drilling area is positioned to capture sedimentary and geochemical records of ocean chemistry and overturning circulation beneath the flow of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. In addition, two operational days were dedicated to a sea trial of the Motion Decoupled Hydraulic Delivery System (MDHDS) developmental tool (Site U1402). The expedition was primarily targeted at reconstructing the Paleogene carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the North Atlantic for reference to recently obtained high-fidelity records of the CCD in the equatorial Pacific. The site in the deepest water (Site U1403) was at a paleodepth of ∼4.5 km 50 m.y. ago, whereas the site in the shallowest water (Site U1408) can be backtracked to a paleodepth of 2.5 km at the same time. The combination of sites yields a record of the history of CCD change over a 2 km depth range from the ocean abyss to middle-range water depths. Notable findings include the discovery of intermittent calcareous sediments in the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and early to middle Eocene at 4.5 km paleodepth, suggesting a deep Atlantic CCD during these times. We find evidence of carbonate deposition events following the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary mass extinction, the Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum, and the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). These deposition events may reflect the rebalancing of ocean alkalinity after mass extinctions or abrupt global climate change. Intervals during which the CCD appears to have been markedly shallow in the North Atlantic include the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, the late Eocene, and the middle Oligocene. A second major objective of Expedition 342 was to recover clay-rich sequences with well-preserved microfossils and high rates of accumulation in comparison to the modest rates of accumulation (∼0.5-1 cm/k.y. in the Paleogene) typically encountered at pelagic sites. As anticipated, Expedition 342 recovered sequences with sedimentation rates as high as 10 cm/k.y.-high enough to enable studies of the dynamics of past abrupt climate change, including both transitions into "greenhouse" and "icehouse" climate states, the full magnitudes of hyperthermal events, and rates of change in the CCD. We find that the thickest central parts of the various sediment drifts typically record similar depositional packages to those recovered in the thin "noses" and "tails" of these drifts, but these central parts are often massively expanded with clay, especially near the CCD. Times of rapid accumulation of drift deposits include the early to late middle Eocene, the late Eocene to early Oligocene, the late Oligocene and early Miocene, the later Miocene to probably late Pliocene, and the Pleistocene. Wide-spread hiatuses are present near the Paleocene/Eocene boundary into the middle early Eocene and the middle Oligocene. The EOT interval features comparatively modest accumulation rates typical of pelagic deep-sea sedimentation at most Expedition 342 sites but is expanded at Site U1411. A marked change in the geometry of drift formation is observed in the ?late Pliocene, as has been observed in drift deposits elsewhere. Seismic stratigraphy on Southeast Newfoundland Ridge is consistent with a massive increase in sedimentation rates in the later Neogene that dwarf the "high deposition" records of the Eocene and Oligocene sediment drifts drilled during Expedition 342. An unexpected finding was the recovery of a number of Cretaceous "critical boundaries." These include the K/Pg boundary, the Campanian-Coniacian interval, the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary and Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 2, and the Albian/Cenomanian boundary OAE 1d. These intervals were drilled opportunistically when they were encountered near or above our target depth for a given site. The K/Pg boundary was recovered at Site U1403, where it proved to have a well-preserved, normally graded spherule bed and unusually well preserved earliest Danian planktonic foraminifer community. The Campanian-Coniacian interval was cored at Site U1407 and is unusual mainly for the relative biostratigraphic completeness of a sequence that elsewhere commonly shows hiatuses in the early Campanian. The Cenomanian-Turonian transition was also cored at Site U1407 and consists of a series of organic black shales in nannofossil chalk with as much as 11 wt% total organic carbon (TOC). The Cenomanian-Turonian sequence at Site U1407 is broadly similar in biostratigraphy, sequence of black shales, and sediment color to classic Italian and northern German outcrop sections. Finally, coring at Site U1407 also recovered a lower Cenomanian nannofossil chalk and nannofossil claystone record that extends into the biozones associated with OAE 1d. The Albian-Cenomanian sequence is notable for the generally high quality of microfossil preservation and its gradational contact with underlying Albian shallow- marine carbonate grainstones and packstones. We created high-quality spliced records of most of the sites on Southeast Newfoundland Ridge that penetrate sequences with carbonate-rich lithologies.
Year of Publication: 2014
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; 20 Geophysics, Applied; Algae; Atlantic Ocean; Biostratigraphy; Boreholes; Canada; Carbonate compensation depth; Cenozoic; Chronostratigraphy; Cores; Cretaceous; Eastern Canada; Expedition 342; Geochemistry; Geophysical methods; Geophysical profiles; Geophysical surveys; IODP Site U1402; IODP Site U1403; IODP Site U1404; IODP Site U1405; IODP Site U1406; IODP Site U1407; IODP Site U1408; IODP Site U1409; IODP Site U1410; IODP Site U1411; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Lithostratigraphy; Magnetostratigraphy; Mesozoic; Microfossils; Nannofossils; Newfoundland; Newfoundland and Labrador; North Atlantic; Northwest Atlantic; Paleo-oceanography; Paleoclimatology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Plantae; Reconstruction; Seismic methods; Seismic profiles; Surveys; Tertiary; Vertical seismic profiles
Coordinates: N395600 N413800 W0490000 W0514900
Record ID: 2014022192
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2017 American Geosciences Institute.