Diagenesis of clay mineral assemblages in the Shikoku Basin; inputs to the Nankai Trough megathrust and seismogenic zone

Online Access: Get full text
Author(s): Underwood, M.; Guo, J.; Song, C.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Missouri, Department Geological Sciences, Columbia, MO, United States
Volume Title: AGU 2012 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2012; American Geophysical Union 2012 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 3-7, 2012. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: One of the essential components of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) is to document the composition and diagenetic alteration of sedimentary inputs to the subduction zone of SW Japan. Two sites were drilled seaward of the trench during IODP Expeditions 322 and 333 to demonstrate how those subduction inputs have been influenced by the basement topography of Shikoku Basin. Site C0011 was drilled on the NW flank of Kashinosaki Knoll, and Site C0012 is located near the seamount's summit. The lithostratigraphy expands and condenses from site to site, but the clay mineral assemblages are nearly identical when comparisons are made among coeval units. The early history of sedimentation (middle to late Miocene) was dominated by expandable clay minerals of the smectite group. Contents of smectite in strata older than 5.3 Ma typically exceed 65% of the clay-size fraction, and there are dozens of bentonite layers (altered volcanic ash) interbedded with the hemipelagic mudstones and turbidites. Those percentages amount to >45 wt-% smectite in the bulk mudstone. Volcanic sources for the Miocene clay probably included the ancestral Izu-Bonin island arc, the Izu-Honshu collision zone, and anomalous near-trench magma bodies in the Outer Zone of Honshu and Shikoku Island. As sedimentation progressed into the Pliocene and Pleistocene, mud supplies to the Shikoku Basin shifted increasingly to detrital illite and chlorite eroded from the uplifted accretionary complex (Outer Zone). At Site C0011, the younger hemipelagic-pyroclastic facies (upper Shikoku Basin) contains an average of 43% smectite, 36% illite, and 18% kaolinite + chlorite in the clay-size fraction. At Site C0012, comparable values are S = 51%, I = 32%, and K+C = 14%. XRD results show no evidence of smectite-to-illite diagenesis seaward of the trench, although it is important to note that Site C0011 was abandoned before reaching basaltic basement. We can predict the extent of smectite-to-illite diagenesis using simple kinetic models that account for differences in heat flow from the flank to the summit of Kashinosaki Knoll and rapid burial of Shikoku Basin facies beneath the Quaternary trench wedge. Our modeling results support the notion that illitization does not progress to detectable levels (>20% I in mixed-layer clay) until after the Shikoku Basin deposits are subducted beneath the frontal megathrust. That absence of pre-subduction diagenesis is important to consider when assessing the potential for fluid production and fluid overpressures deeper down-dip along the megathrust, as well as for identifying the potential sources for freshening of interstitial fluids.
Year of Publication: 2012
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Clay minerals; IODP Site C0011; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Marine sediments; Mineral assemblages; Mineral composition; NanTroSEIZE; Nankai Trough; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Pacific Ocean; Sediments; Sheet silicates; Shikoku Basin; Silicates; West Pacific
Coordinates: N324944 N324945 E1365256 E1365254
Record ID: 2014080579
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by, and/or abstract, Copyright, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States