High resolution shallow imaging of the mega-splay fault in the central Nankai Trough off Kumano

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Author(s): Ashi, J.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Tokyo, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Chiba, Japan
Volume Title: AGU 2012 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2012; American Geophysical Union 2012 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 3-7, 2012. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: Steep slopes are continuously developed at water depths between 2200 to 2800 m at the Nankai accretionary prism off Kumano. These slopes are interpreted to be surface expressions caused by the megasplay fault on seismic reflection profiles. The fault plane has been drilled at multiple depths below seafloor by IODP NanTroSEIZE project. Mud breccias only recognized at the hanging wall of the fault (Site C0004) by X-ray CT scanner are interpreted be formed by strong ground shaking and the age of the shallowest event of mud breccia layers suggests deformation in 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Sakaguchi et al., 2011). Detailed structures around the fault have been examined by seismic reflection profiles including 3D experiments. Although the fault plane deeper than 100 m is well imaged, the structure shallower than 100 m is characterized by obscure sediment veneer suggesting no recent fault activity. Investigation of shallow deformation structures is significant for understanding of recent tectonic activity. Therefore, we carried out deep towed subbottom profile survey by ROV NSS (Navigable Sampling System) during Hakuho-maru KH-11-9 cruise. We introduced a chirp subbottom profiling system of EdgeTech DW-106 for high resolution mapping of shallow structures. ROV NSS also has capability to take a long core with a pinpoint accuracy. The subbottom profiler crossing the megasplay fault near Site C0004 exhibits a landward dipping reflector suggesting the fault plane. The shallowest depth of the reflector is about 10 m below seafloor and the strata above it shows reflectors parallel to the seafloor without any topographic undulation. The fault must have displaced the shallow formation because intense deformation indicated by mud breccia was restricted to near fault zone. Slumping or sliding probably modified the shallow formation after the faulting. The shallow deformations near the megasplay fault were well imaged at the fault scarp 20 km southwest of Site C0004. Although the fault plane itself is not recognized, displacements of sedimentary layers are observed along the fault up to 30 meter below the seafloor. Landward dip of the fault is estimated to be 30 degrees. Displacements of strata are about 3 m near the surface and about 5 m at 7 m below the seafloor suggesting accumulation of fault displacement. The structure more than 30 m below the seafloor is obscure due to decrease of acoustic signal. Active cold seep is expected in this site by high heat flow (Yamano et al., 2012) and many trails of Calyptogena detected by seafloor observations. These results are consistent with the shallow structures revealed by our subbottom profiling survey. References: Sakaguchi, A. et al., Geology 39, 919-922, 2011. Yamano, M. et al., JpGU Meeting abstract, SSS38-P23, 2012.
Year of Publication: 2012
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 16 Structural Geology; Faults; IODP Site C0004; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; NanTroSEIZE; Nankai Trough; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Pacific Ocean; West Pacific
Coordinates: N331300 N331300 E1364300 E1364300
Record ID: 2014082002
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