Effects of Deccan volcanism on paleoenvironment and planktic Foraminifera; a global survey

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doi: 10.1130/2014.2505(04)
Author(s): Punekar, Jahnavi; Mateo, Paula; Keller, Gerta
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Princeton University, Department of Geosciences, Princeton, NJ, United States
Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Volume Title: Volcanism, impacts, and mass extinctions; causes and effects
Volume Author(s): Keller, Gerta, editor; Kerr, Andrew C.
Source: Volcanism, impacts, and mass extinctions; causes and effects, edited by Gerta Keller and Andrew C. Kerr. Special Paper - Geological Society of America, Vol.505, p.91-116. Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0072-1077 CODEN: GSAPAZ
Note: In English. 125 refs.; illus., incl. sketch map
Summary: Deccan volcanism, one of Earth's largest flood basalt provinces, erupted ∼ 80% of its total volume (phase 2) during a relatively short time in the uppermost Maastrichtian paleomagnetic chron C29r and ended with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction. Full biotic recovery in the marine realm was delayed at least 500 k.y. or until after the last Deccan eruptions in C29n (phase 3, 14% of the total Deccan volume). For over 30 yr, the mass extinction has been commonly attributed to the Chicxulub impact, and the delayed recovery remained an enigma. Here, we demonstrate that the two phases of Deccan volcanism can account for both the mass extinction and delayed marine recovery. In India, a direct correlation between Deccan eruptions (phase 2) and the mass extinction reveals that ∼ 50% of the planktic foraminifer species gradually disappeared during volcanic eruptions prior to the first of four lava megaflows, reaching approximately 1500 km across India, and out to the Bay of Bengal. Another 50% disappeared after the first megaflow, and the mass extinction was complete with the last megaflow. Throughout this interval, blooms of the disaster opportunist Guembelitria cretacea dominate shallow-marine assemblages in coeval intervals from India to the Tethys and the Atlantic Oceans to Texas. Similar high-stress environments dominated by blooms of Guembelitria and/or Globoconusa are observed correlative with Deccan volcanism phase 3 in the early Danian C29n, followed by full biotic recovery after volcanism ended. The mass extinction and high-stress conditions may be explained by the intense Deccan volcanism leading to rapid global warming and cooling in C29r and C29n, enhanced weathering, continental runoff, and ocean acidification, resulting in a carbonate crisis in the marine environment.
Year of Publication: 2014
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
Key Words: 08 Paleontology, General; 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Africa; Asia; Atlantic Ocean; Biota; Biotic stress; Brazos River; C-13/C-12; Carbon; Cenozoic; Chicxulub Crater; Climate change; Cretaceous; DSDP Site 525; Danian; Data bases; Deccan Traps; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Egypt; Elles Tunisia; Eruptions; Europe; Extinct taxa; Faunal studies; Foraminifera; Global; Hor Hahar Israel; IPOD; Iceland; India; Indian Peninsula; Invertebrata; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Israel; K-T boundary; Laki; Large igneous provinces; Leg 74; Lower Paleocene; Maestrichtian; Marine environment; Mass extinctions; Mesozoic; Microfossils; Middle East; North Africa; North America; O-18/O-16; Oxygen; Paleocene; Paleoclimatology; Paleoecology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Planktonic taxa; Protista; South Atlantic; Stable isotopes; Stratigraphic boundary; Tertiary; Tethys; Texas; Tunisia; United States; Upper Cretaceous; Volcanism; Wadi Hamama; Walvis Ridge; Western Europe; Western Interior; Western Interior Seaway
Coordinates: S290415 S290414 E0025908 E0025907
Record ID: 2014085273
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