Geochemistry of sediment from IODP Expeditions 322 and 333; terrigenous provenance, dispersed ash, and the Nankai "subduction factory"

Author(s): Scudder, R.; Murray, Richard W.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Kutterolf, S.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Boston University, Boston, MA, United States
GEOMAR, Germany
Volume Title: AGU 2013 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2013; American Geophysical Union 2013 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 9-13, 2013. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: Terrigenous material and volcanic ash play important roles in the IODP Seismogenic Zone and "Subduction Factory" initiatives. Particularly relevant to these projects are studies of geochemical budgets including how fluids within subducting sediment will be affected by hydration/dehydration reactions. Of great importance is the volcanic component, which occurs both as discrete ash layers and as ash dispersed throughout the sediment column and their related altered products in the down-going plate. Based on bulk sedimentary geochemical studies of IODP Sites C0011 and C0012 drilled during Expeditions 322 and 333, we will show the importance of dispersed ash to the Nankai subduction zone and document important changes in terrigenous provenance to these locations. The major elemental characteristics of the hemipelagic mudstones are remarkably consistent both downcore and between Site C0011 and Site C0012. For example, the average Si/Al ratio at both sites C0011 and C0012 is 3.3±0.2. This is observed in other key major elemental indicators as well (e.g., Fe2O3). Alkali elements, Trace elements and REEs exhibit greater downcore variability while remaining consistent between the sites. Ternary diagrams such as La-Th-Sc and Sc-Cr-Th as well as other geochemical plots (i.e., Sm/Al vs. Th/Al) show that Site C0011 and Site C0012 are fairly clustered, derived primarily from a continental arc source, and that distal sources to the sediment are important in addition to a modest and varying component from the proximal Izu-Bonin Island Arc. Multivariate statistical treatments are further being applied to the datasets from these sites to allow a better determination of the number of sources that make up the bulk sediment (and their provenance). Q-mode Factor Analysis was performed in order to determine the composition of potential end member contributions to these sites. The multivariate statistics indicate Site C0011 and C0012 each have 4-5 end members that explain 98% of the total variance in the data. These factors include those with very high SiO2, some with intermediate SiO2, and carbonate components. Applying these results in conjunction with Total Inversion, a linear regression technique, will allow us to determine the compositional variation of these end members. The potential mineralogical implications of these sources, contributing different amounts and species of magmatic minerals to the sediment, will also be presented. In addition we will examine the relationship between the source(s) of the discrete ash layers to the provenance of the dispersed ash component. Shipboard visual studies of the discrete ash layers identified at least two broad types of ash present at each site. Electron microprobe analysis of individual glass shards from ash layers at Sites 322 and 333 confirms the presence of two types of ash, the majority of the ashes are rhyolitic, while the rest are andesitic to dacitic in composition. Additionally, shipboard smear slide analysis noted a sharp gradient of glass alteration in ash layers at the Unit IA/IB boundary at Site C0011. Further work will determine how these discrete ash layers relate to the composition of the dispersed ash particularly in this section.
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Chemical composition; Dehydration; Expedition 322; Expedition 333; Geochemistry; IODP Site C0011; IODP Site C0012; Igneous rocks; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Marine sediments; NanTroSEIZE; Nankai Trough; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Pacific Ocean; Provenance; Pyroclastics; Sediments; Shikoku Basin; Volcanic ash; Volcanic rocks; West Pacific
Coordinates: N324453 N324453 E1365501 E1365501
N324944 N324945 E1365256 E1365254
Record ID: 2015006306
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