The maximum age of Hawaiian terrestrial lineages; geological constraints from Koko Seamount

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doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02235.x
Author(s): Clague, David A.; Braga, Juan C.; Bassi, Davide; Fullagar, Paul D.; Renema, Willem; Webster, Jody M.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States
Universidade dos Acores, Portugal
Universidad de Granada, Spain
Universita di Ferrara, Italy
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States
Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Netherlands
Volume Title: Evolutionary islands; 150 years after Darwin
Volume Author(s): Schilthuizen, Menno, editor; Raes, Niels; Linder, Peter; Triantis, Konstantinos; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Whittaker, Robert J.
Source: Journal of Biogeography, 37(6), p.1022-1033; Evolutionary islands; 150 years after Darwin, Leiden, Netherlands, Feb. 11-13, 2009, edited by Menno Schilthuizen, Niels Raes, Peter Linder, Konstantinos Triantis, José María Fernández-Palacios and Robert J. Whittaker. Publisher: Wiley, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISSN: 1365-2699 CODEN: JBIODN
Note: In English. 53 refs.; illus., incl. 2 tables, sketch map
Summary: Aim: To determine if Koko Seamount submerged below sea level before Kure Island and Pearl and Hermes Reef formed, resulting in a period in which there were no extant islands. A period with no islands would eliminate prior terrestrial and shallow marine biotas that could migrate from island to island and require a restart of colonization from distant shores to populate the younger islands of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. Location: Emperor Seamount Chain, north-central Pacific Ocean. Methods: We estimate subsidence rates for Koko Seamount using ages determined from fossil large foraminifera and Sr-isotopes, and maximum depths using palaeodepth estimates based on coralline algae. These data are combined with palaeolatitude changes as the Pacific Plate moved northwards, sea level variations, and sea surface temperature variations at the seamount through time to reconstruct the time and causes of submergence. Results: Rounded carbonate clasts include three facies: zooxanthelate corals, bioclastic packstones to rudstones, and rhodolith floatstones. Two rudstones contain relatively deep-water, coralline algal rhodoliths and large foraminifera indicative of Aquitanian (20.4-20 Ma) and Burdigalian (20-16 Ma) stages of the Early Miocene, consistent with Sr-isotope ages of algae and one sample of large foraminifera. Corals grew on Koko Seamount from c. 50 to 27.1±0.4 Ma, the youngest Sr-isotope age of a coral sample. These shallow, warm-water coral reefs came under increasing stress as the volcano subsided at 0.012±0.003 mm yr-1, and migrated northwards, and as global climate cooled. The summit submerged and shallow coral reef growth ceased before 29 Ma, probably around 33 Ma. The volcano continued its slow subsidence, and deep-water carbonates accumulated until they too were unable to keep pace, dying out at c. 16 Ma. Main conclusions: The final submergence of the summit of Koko Seamount by about 33 Ma confirms that biota on older Hawaiian-Emperor Islands could not have migrated from island to island along the entire chain to eventually colonize the present Hawaiian Islands. There was a period between at least 33 and 29 Ma in which no islands existed, and distant colonization had to repopulate the younger portion of the Hawaiian chain, which began to emerge between about 29 and 23 Ma.
Year of Publication: 2010
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Absolute age; Anthozoa; Assemblages; Bathymetry; Biogeography; Biostratigraphy; Cenozoic; Cnidaria; DSDP Site 308; DSDP Site 309; Deep Sea Drilling Project; East Pacific Ocean Islands; Emperor Seamounts; Foraminifera; Hawaii; Invertebrata; Koko Seamount; Leg 197; Leg 32; Lithofacies; Microfossils; Miocene; Neogene; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; ODP Site 1206; Ocean Drilling Program; Ocean floors; Oceania; Oligocene; Pacific Ocean; Paleoclimatology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Paleogeography; Polynesia; Protista; Reef environment; Seamounts; Sr/Sr; Subsidence; Tertiary; United States; West Pacific
Coordinates: N345856 N345856 E1720859 E1720859
N340000 N360000 E1723000 E1704500
Record ID: 2015020797
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom