Properties of smectite in the Kumano Basin, Japan; new results from NanTroSEIZE expedition 319

Online Access: Get full text
Author(s): Schleicher, A. M.; van der Pluijm, B. A.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Michigan, Geological Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI, United States
Volume Title: AGU 2011 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2011; American Geophysical Union 2011 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 5-9, 2011. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: Smectite clays are common in the sediments of the Kumano basin, offshore Japan, but their properties and the role they may play in influencing the mechanical and hydrological behavior of sediments and the splay-fault system is not well understood. In this study, samples from NanTroSEIZE Expedition 319 and 316 were studied for their mineralogical characteristics, hydration behavior and textural properties. We focused on the fabric development and swelling behavior of smectite at ∼1500 mbsf, in order to evaluate the occurrence and intake of water in smectite, and its relation to digenesis and fault weakening processes. Rock chips were measured by X-ray texture goniometry (XTG), revealing an overall weak fabric that changes to a slightly stronger fabric with depth and a weak fabric at the splay-fault. The clay-size fraction (< 2 micron) of the sediments, as measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD), shows smectite, illite-smectite and illite together with chlorite, quartz, and calcite. The air-dried sample shows a smectitic phase with a characteristic interlayer distance (d-value) of 1.3 nm that increases to 1.8 nm after classic ethylene glycolization, suggesting the presence of 1-3 water layers in the interlayer. In addition, novel temperature/humidity measurements were conducted under controlled conditions, with temperatures at 25°C, 50°C, 75°C, and 95°C, and humidity ranging from 10% RH (relative humidity) to 98% RH. The x-ray patterns show no breakdown of smectite due to hydration and/or heating. With increasing humidity under isothermal conditions, the hydration of interlayer cations and the particle orientation increases, whereas under stable humidity the intensities decrease with increasing temperature. At 25°C and with increasing humidity, illite-smectite changes from 1.1 to 1.3 nm, whereas smectite changes from 1.25 to 1.55 nm (1-2 water layers). The increase is less pronounced at 50°C and 75°C, with changes from 1.25 to 1.45nm (1-2 water layers). At all temperatures, the patterns show a maximum of 2 water layers, in contrast to the ethylene glycol treated sample with up to 3 water layers, indicating additional change in the interlayer structure during chemical treatments. All hydration measurements are fully reversible. Preliminary high-resolution TEM analysis of impregnated rock chips from the same depth confirms the presence of two water layers at all depths. Based on our experiments we conclude that i) the fabric of smectite increases slightly with depth, reflecting compaction, ii) swelling is not significantly affected by increasing temperature, iii) preferred orientation increases with increasing humidity, suggesting higher mobility of the fundamental smectite particles cause by hydration of interlayer cations. This characterization of the hydration state and associated fabric development of smectite in natural conditions is critical for our understanding of clay-fluid interaction and mechanical properties during fault displacements and seismogenesis.
Year of Publication: 2011
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 06 Petrology, Sedimentary; 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; Active faults; Characterization; Clay minerals; Commonwealth of Independent States; Depositional environment; Displacements; Europe; Expedition 319; Faults; Hydration; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Kuma Basin; Mechanical properties; Mineral composition; Mineral interlayer; NanTroSEIZE; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Ocean floors; Pacific Ocean; Russian Federation; Sediments; Sheet silicates; Silicates; Smectite; Textures; West Pacific
Coordinates: N324900 N333000 E1365300 E1363200
Record ID: 2015099592
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by, and/or abstract, Copyright, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States