The opening of the Arctic-Atlantic gateway; tectonic, oceanographic and climatic dynamics, an IODP initiative

Author(s): Geissler, Wolfram H.; Knies, J.; Nielsen, T.; Gaina, C.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Gebhardt, Catalina; Damm, V.; Forwick, M.; Hjelstuen, B. O.; Hopper, J. R.; Husum, K.; Laberg, J. S.; Kuerschner, W.; Morigi, C.; Schreck, M.; Tripati, A. K.; Vogt, C. M.; Rebesco, M.; Nam, S. I.; Carlson, A. E.; de Schepper, Stijn; Lucchi, R.; Mattingsdal, R.; Jokat, W.; Stein, R. H.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz-Center for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven, Bremerhaven, Germany
Geological Survey of Norway, Norway
National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark
University of Oslo, Centre for Earth Evolution and Dynamics, Norway
BGR Hannover, Germany
University of Tromso, Norway
University of Bergen, Department of Geology, Norway
Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway
University of Oslo, Norway
University of Pisa, Department of Earth Sciences, Italy
KOPRI Korea Polar Research Institute, Arctic Research Centre, South Korea
University of California at Los Angeles, United States
University of Bremen, Germany
National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics OGS, Italy
KOPRI Korea Polar Research Institute, South Korea
COAS, United States
Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Norway
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Norway
Volume Title: AGU 2014 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2014; American Geophysical Union 2014 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 15-19, 2014. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait/Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth's past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG's consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG's complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (∼50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic.
Year of Publication: 2014
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 22 Environmental Geology; Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Climate change; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; International Ocean Discovery Program; North Atlantic; Ocean circulation; Tectonics
Record ID: 2015101350
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by, and/or abstract, Copyright, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States

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