Paleoceanographic setting and preservation of buried manganese deposits in DSDP/ODP cores

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doi: 10.1111/j.1751-3928.2006.tb00298.x
Author(s): Ito, Takashi; Komuro, Kosei
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Ibaraki University, College of Education, Mito, Japan
Other:
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Volume Title: Resource Geology (Tokyo. 1998)
Source: Resource Geology (Tokyo. 1998), 56(4), p.457-470. Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Society of Resource Geology, Oxford, United Kingdom. ISSN: 1344-1698
Note: In English. Includes appendices. 70 refs.; illus., incl. 4 tables, sketch map
Summary: Lithology and stratigraphic setting of buried manganese deposits and associated host sediments in cores obtained on Legs 123-210 of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) are presented. Fossil manganese nodule and crusts were formed or deposited through out the period from 100 Ma to the present, with an additional example of formation near 137 Ma, suggesting that the deep-sea environment has been oxic and suitable for the formation of manganese nodules and crusts since the Cretaceous. Many of them occur on horizons corresponding to hiatuses in sedimentation or periods of slow sedimentation, with rate less than 10 m/m.y. This is consistent with the environment in the modern nodules. Sediments overlying the fossil nodules and crusts are oozes or biogenic sediments with sedimentation rates of 1-18 m/m.y. Low total organic carbon (< 0.1 wt %) in the overlying sediments and high sulphide content (> 25 mM) in interstitial water around the manganese horizon suggest that no strong reduction occurred within the overlying sediments. Coverage by biogenic sediments containing only small amounts of organic matter is therefore considered important for the preservation of manganese nodules and crusts. Manganese carbonate occurs sporadically as nodules, concretions or thin layers in various host sediments, including clay, calcareous ooze and siliceous ooze with sedimentation rates of 6-125 m/m.y. Hiatuses are rare around the host sediments of manganese carbonate. Higher total organic carbon (0.2-1.8 wt %) in the host sediments and lower sulphate content (0-25 mM) in interstitial water around the manganese carbonate horizon suggest that reduction in association with decomposition of organic matter would have proceeded in the host sediments.
Year of Publication: 2006
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; 27 Economic Geology, Metals; Carbonates; Clastic sediments; Cores; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Deep-sea environment; Diagenesis; East Pacific; Equatorial Pacific; Ferromanganese crusts; Indian Ocean; Leg 123; Leg 138; Leg 143; Leg 144; Leg 181; Leg 183; Leg 191; Leg 192; Leg 198; Leg 199; Manganese ores; Marine environment; Marine sedimentation; Metal ores; Nodules; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Ocean Drilling Program; Ontong Java Plateau; Ooze; Organic compounds; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Preservation; Reduction; Rhodochrosite; Sedimentation; Sedimentation rates; Sediments; Shatsky Rise; South Pacific; Sulfides; Total organic carbon; West Pacific
Coordinates: S195557 S155831 E1173430 E1102714
S030548 N111326 W0902851 W1103419
N053000 N350000 E1723000 E1440000
S600000 S320000 E0980000 E0630000
N120000 N420000 E1600000 E1430000
S050100 N010000 E1643000 E1570000
N313400 N374800 E1624600 E1571500
N074500 N260500 W1350000 W1480000
Record ID: 2016020017
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Mineralogical Abstracts, United Kingdom, Twickenham, United Kingdom