Climatic fluctuations and sea-surface water circulation patterns at the end of the Cretaceous era; calcareous nannofossil evidence

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doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.07.049
Author(s): Thibault, Nicolas R.; Husson, Dorothée
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Copenhagen, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Copenhagen K, Denmark
University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Volcanic Basin Petroleum Research, Norway
University of Oslo, Norway
Technological Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, United States
Volume Title: Impact, volcanism, global changes and mass extinctions
Volume Author(s): Font, Eric, editor; Adatte, Thierry; Planke, Sverre; Svensen, Henrik; Kuerschner, Wolfram
Source: Impact, volcanism, global changes and mass extinctions, edited by Eric Font, Thierry Adatte, Sverre Planke, Henrik Svensen and Wolfram Kuerschner. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 441( Part 1), p.152-164. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0031-0182 CODEN: PPPYAB
Note: In English. 89 refs.; illus., incl. 1 table
Summary: New paleoecological data are presented for late Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the Indian Ocean and the Boreal epicontinental Chalk Sea. These data are compiled with recent results in the tropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Tethys oceans in order to characterize environmental changes by the end of the Cretaceous era. The paleobiogeographic distribution of the warm-water species Micula murus is updated and indicates the existence of major sea-surface currents in the late Maastrichtian Atlantic Ocean similar to the present day. The end-Maastrichtian greenhouse warming is characterized at tropical and subtropical latitudes by an increase in abundance of M. murus and the temporary disappearance of the high-fertility marker Biscutum constans. In the Boreal realm, the greenhouse episode is marked by a contemporaneous acme of Watznaueria barnesiae coincident with very rare occurrences of M. murus and other tropical nannofossil species which have never been reported before at boreal latitudes. A review of cyclostratigraphic and calcareous nannofossil data in the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, and Tethys Oceans points to the following evolution of sea-surface paleotemperatures for the last ca. 350-380 kyr of the Cretaceous: the end-Maastrichtian greenhouse warming lasted on average a little more than 200 kyr and was followed by a ca. 100-120 kyr cooling. In the Tethys, a 30-40 kyr additional pulse of warming is highlighted immediately below the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. These findings indicate an important instability of the climate system at the end of the Maastrichtian, most likely caused by Deccan volcanism. The calcareous nannofossil species richness dropped during the end-Maastrichtian greenhouse warming, which may indicate environmental stress and/or ocean acidification. However, nannoplankton diversity returned rapidly to higher values after this climatic episode and remained high up to the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. No significant extinction is recorded in this biotic group prior to the boundary clay. Abstract Copyright (2016) Elsevier, B.V.
Year of Publication: 2016
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
IPOD International Phase of Ocean Drilling
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Africa; Algae; Ar/Ar; Atlantic Ocean; Biscutum; Boreal Realm; Bottaccione Italy; Central Tunisia; Chron 29r; Climate change; Cores; Cretaceous; Cyclostratigraphy; DSDP Site 525; DSDP Site 577; Deep Sea Drilling Project; Demerara Rise; Denmark; Elles Tunisia; Equatorial Atlantic; Europe; Exmouth Plateau; Fluctuations; Geochronology; IPOD; Indian Ocean; Italy; Leg 122; Leg 207; Leg 74; Leg 86; Maestrichtian; Mesozoic; Microfossils; Micula; Micula murus; Nannofossils; North Africa; North Atlantic; North Pacific; Northwest Atlantic; Northwest Pacific; ODP Site 1258; ODP Site 762; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Paleocirculation; Paleoclimatology; Paleoecology; Paleogeography; Plantae; Relative age; Scandinavia; Sea surface water; Sea water; Shatsky Rise; Sjaelland; Skaelskor-1 Borehole; South Atlantic; Southern Europe; Stevns Klint; Stevns-1 Borehole; Tethys; Tunisia; U/Pb; Upper Cretaceous; Upper Maestrichtian; Walvis Ridge; Watznaueria; West Atlantic; West Pacific; Western Europe
Coordinates: S195315 S195314 E1121515 E1121514
N551300 N552500 E0122500 E0120600
Record ID: 2016023438
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands