Biotic extinctions, dissolution, and ocean acidification prior to the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in the tropical Pacific

Author(s): Dameron, Serena; Leckie, R. Mark; Clark, Kendra R.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Thomas, Deborah J.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA, United States
Other:
University of Missouri at Columbia, United States
Texas A&M University, United States
Volume Title: Geological Society of America, 2015 annual meeting & exposition
Source: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 47(7), p.640; Geological Society of America, 2015 annual meeting & exposition, Baltimore, MD, Nov. 1-4, 2015. Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0016-7592 CODEN: GAAPBC
Note: In English
Summary: The several million years preceding the K/Pg boundary has been the focus of many studies. Changes in ocean circulation and sea level, extinctions, and major volcanic events have all been documented for this interval. Important research questions these changes raise include the climate dynamics during the warm, but not hot, time after the decay of the Late Cretaceous greenhouse interval and the stability of ecosystems prior to the mass extinctions at the end-Cretaceous. Biotic perturbations and changes in ocean circulation during the Maastrichtian stage of the latest Cretaceous raise questions about whether the biosphere was preconditioned for the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of calcareous plankton. A brief acme of inoceramid clams at ∼71 Ma at Shatsky Rise in the tropical North Pacific was followed by their extinction during the "mid-Maastrichtian event" at 70.1 Ma associated with an abrupt warming of deep waters. This was followed by an interval of intense dissolution beginning ∼67.8 Ma at ODP Site 1209 (2387 m water depth). The transition into the dissolution interval was initially gradual, then rapid, and is defined by a low planktic/benthic (P/B) ratio, highly fragmented planktic foraminifera, an absence of larger taxa, abundance of smaller taxa, and low planktic foraminiferal and nannofossil species richness. This dissolution event is followed by a gradual recovery in carbonate preservation beginning ∼700 kyr prior to the K/Pg boundary. Was the dissolution event caused by a change in deep water circulation, migration of the site out of the high productivity tropical belt, or ocean acidification associated with Deccan Traps volcanism? A second dissolution event is documented ∼200 kyr before the boundary as evidenced by a marked increase in planktic fragmentation, but without a change in P/B. Our data show that changing deep water masses, coupled with reduced productivity and associated decrease in pelagic carbonate flux was responsible for the first dissolution interval (67.8-66.4 Ma), while Deccan Traps volcanism may have caused surface ocean acidification ∼200-kyr prior to the K/Pg mass extinction event.
Year of Publication: 2015
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Acidification; Cenozoic; Cretaceous; Extinction; Foraminifera; Invertebrata; K-T boundary; Leg 198; Lower Paleocene; Marine environment; Mesozoic; Microfossils; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; ODP Site 1209; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Paleocene; Paleoecology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Protista; Shatsky Rise; Stratigraphic boundary; Tertiary; Upper Cretaceous; West Pacific
Coordinates: N323900 N324000 E1583100 E1583000
Record ID: 2016055497
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States