Investigating eastern Equatorial Pacific export production and carbonate dissolution with XRF core scanning at ODP Site 846 over the last 5 million years

Author(s): Jones, Colin; Robinson, Rebecca S.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Rhode Island Narragansett Bay, Narragansett, RI, United States
Volume Title: AGU 2015 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2015; American Geophysical Union 2015 fall meeting, San Francisco, CA, Dec. 14-18, 2015. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: Coastal and equatorial upwelling in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) are responsible for about 10% of the ocean's total production. The deep, cold, nutrient-rich waters supplied by upwelling originate in high latitudes, linking changes at high latitudes to the tropics. The Pliocene/Pleistocene transition which started around 2.7-3 million years ago (Ma) marked a period of higher variability in biological production and sea surface temperatures dominated by glacial/interglacial cycles. In addition, secular changes in the development of both Walker and Hadley cells appear to have impacted the strength of equatorial upwelling. However, the large positive production excursions, such as those found from 1.6 to 2.2 Ma, remain only moderately well characterized and both changes in high latitude nutrient supply and regional upwelling strength are implicated. ODP Site 846 is located in the heart of the EEP upwelling cold tongue and has ideal characteristics for examining these links and excursions. We present high-resolution (∼0.5 ky) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) chemical profiles of Ca, Si, Ba, Mn, Fe, Al, and Ti, as well as a total nitrogen (TN%) record for the last 5 million years from ODP Site 846. We use these high resolution profiles in conjunction with other regional data to assess biogeochemical processes in the EEP over the last 5 million years. CaCO3 and SiO2 are the two dominant biogenic components and account for more than 95% of the sediment. BaSO4 and the discrete TN% measurements record total productivity. MnO and Fe2O3 are redox-sensitive species and are particularly suited to tracing dissolution related to excess bottom-water metabolic processes driven by high export production at the high-alkalinity Site 846. Al2O3 and TiO2 are tracers of terrigenous input. A transition between low amplitude and high amplitude carbonate cycles occurs at 2.8 Ma, coinciding with the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition to higher amplitude glacial cycles. Notable excursions from the baseline high carbonate system occur between 3.8 and 4.2 Ma, between 1.6 and 2.2 Ma, at 0.75 Ma, and within the last 0.1 Ma. These excursions are explored, and causes include heavy contributions from productivity-driven dissolution, some extended instances of CCD-driven dissolution and shifts in overlying productivity towards diatoms.
Year of Publication: 2015
Research Program: ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Carbonates; Cores; East Pacific; Equatorial Pacific; Leg 138; Marine sediments; ODP Site 846; Ocean Drilling Program; Pacific Ocean; Paleo-oceanography; Sediments; South Pacific; Southeast Pacific
Coordinates: S030549 S030541 W0904904 W0904906
Record ID: 2016062595
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