Microbial activity in the marine deep biosphere; progress and prospects

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doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00189
Author(s): Orcutt, Beth N.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Biddle, Jennifer F.; Colwell, Frederick S.; Glazer, Brian T.; Kiel Reese, Brandi; Kirkpatrick, John B.; Lapham, Laura L.; Mills, Heath J.; Sylvan, Jason B.; Wankel, Scott D.; Wheat, C. Geoffrey
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME, United States
University of Southern California, United States
University of Delaware, United States
Oregon State University, United States
University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States
University of Rhode Island, United States
University of Maryland, United States
University of Houston at Clear Lake, United States
Woods Hole Oceanogrpahic Institution, United States
University of Alaska at Fairbanks, United States
Volume Title: Frontiers in Microbiology
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol.4 (Article 189). Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland. ISSN: 1664-302X
Note: In English. 198 refs.; illus.
Summary: The vast marine deep biosphere consists of microbial habitats within sediment, pore waters, upper basaltic crust and the fluids that circulate throughout it. A wide range of temperature, pressure, pH, and electron donor and acceptor conditions exists--all of which can combine to affect carbon and nutrient cycling and result in gradients on spatial scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. Diverse and mostly uncharacterized microorganisms live in these habitats, and potentially play a role in mediating global scale biogeochemical processes. Quantifying the rates at which microbial activity in the subsurface occurs is a challenging endeavor, yet developing an understanding of these rates is essential to determine the impact of subsurface life on Earth's global biogeochemical cycles, and for understanding how microorganisms in these "extreme" environments survive (or even thrive). Here, we synthesize recent advances and discoveries pertaining to microbial activity in the marine deep subsurface, and we highlight topics about which there is still little understanding and suggest potential paths forward to address them. This publication is the result of a workshop held in August 2012 by the NSF-funded Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) "theme team" on microbial activity (www.darkenergybiosphere.org).
Year of Publication: 2013
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 07 Marine Geology and Oceanography; 22 Environmental Geology; Biogenic processes; Biomass; Biosphere; Carbonates; Crust; DNA; Deep biosphere; East Pacific; Ecology; Expedition 327; Expedition 331; Genetics; Geomicrobiology; Hydrothermal vents; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; International Ocean Discovery Program; Juan de Fuca Ridge; Marine environment; Marine sediments; Methods; Microorganisms; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Nucleic acids; Ocean floors; Oceanic crust; Okinawa Trough; Pacific Ocean; RNA; Sampling; Sediments; West Pacific; World ocean
Record ID: 2016081369
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute.

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