Anatolia; a long-time plant refuge area documented by pollen records over the last 23 million years

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doi: 10.1016/j.revpalbo.2014.12.004
Author(s): Biltekin, Demet; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Quézel, Pierre; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Yavuz, Nurdan; Cagatay, M. Namik
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Institut Catala de Paleoecología Humana i Evolucio Social, Tarragona, Spain
GeoBioStratData.Consulting, France
Université Paris VI, France
Universidad de Granada, Spain
General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Turkey
Volume Title: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
Source: Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, Vol.215, p.1-22. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0034-6667 CODEN: RPPYAX
Note: In English. 183 refs.; illus., incl. strat. cols., charts, 3 plates, 2 tables, geol. sketch maps
Summary: North and South Anatolia areas are today refuge areas for plants that were previously widespread in the European and Mediterranean regions. Thirteen well-dated Anatolian pollen records spanning the last 23 million years allow for a reconstruction of the history of several plants that have disappeared from this region or are surviving in this refuge area. For example, in this study we show that Cedrus is an ancient element of the Anatolian flora. Tropical elements lived in this area until the early Pliocene. Subtropical elements became extinct in the Middle to Late Pleistocene, except for Glyptostrobus (Taxodiaceae swamp tree) and Carya (Juglandaceae, a warm-temperate tree), which may have persisted until recently in this area. In addition, a comparison of palaeofloras coming from different locations ranging from 36-38°N and 40-42°N latitudinal intervals in the northeastern Mediterranean (including Anatolian coastal regions) with those from Europe and North Africa has been done. This shows that the North and South Anatolia areas appear to have been separate refuges for thermophilous-hygrophilous plants since the early Pliocene (ca. 5 million years). Today, Anatolia is a plant refuge area for warm-temperate species, which have almost completely (Zelkova) or completely (Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Parrotia persica) disappeared from other European and peri-Mediterranean regions. Taxodiaceae swamp ecosystems (Glyptostrobus) might have recently disappeared from the southern Black Sea shoreline. New pollen data from Anatolia also allowed us in calibrating the timing of floristic extinctions at a continental scale and helped us in clarifying the reasons of the different floral extinctions and dynamics (breaking up and shifting) in the refuge areas. Thanks to global warming there is a potential for the survival and expansion of thermophilous species (Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Zelkova abelica, Liquidambar orientalis) in this area. Abstract Copyright (2015) Elsevier, B.V.
Year of Publication: 2015
Research Program: DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project
Key Words: 09 Paleontology, Paleobotany; Africa; Algae; Alpine environment; Anatolia; Asia; Assemblages; Biologic evolution; Biostratigraphy; Black Sea; Boreal environment; Cenozoic; Coastal environment; Coniferales; Cores; DSDP Site 380; Deep Sea Drilling Project; East Mediterranean; Electron microscopy data; Europe; Extinction; Floral studies; Gymnospermae; Holocene; Isotopes; Lacustrine environment; Leg 42B; Lower Pleistocene; Marine environment; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean region; Microfossils; Middle East; Miocene; Miospores; Nannofossils; Neogene; North Africa; Oxygen; Paleoclimatology; Paleoecology; Paleoenvironment; Palynomorphs; Plantae; Pleistocene; Pliocene; Pollen; Quaternary; Refugia; SEM data; Spermatophyta; Stable isotopes; Subtropical environment; Taxodiaceae; Temperate environment; Terrestrial environment; Tertiary; Tropical environment; Turkey
Coordinates: N420559 N420559 E0293654 E0293654
N360500 N420200 E0445000 E0261000
Record ID: 2017028327
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands