The transformation of sediment into rock; insights from IODP Site U1352, Canterbury Basin, New Zealand

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doi: 10.2110/jsr.2017.15
Author(s): Marsaglia, Kathleen M.; Browne, Greg H.; George, Simon C.; Kemp, David B.; Jaeger, John M.; Carson, David; Richaud, Mathieu
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program, Expedition 317 Scientific Party, College Station, TX
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
California State University, Department of Geological Sciences, Northridge, CA, United States
Other:
GNS Science, New Zealand
Macquarie University, Australia
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom
University of Florida, United States
Volume Title: Journal of Sedimentary Research
Source: Journal of Sedimentary Research, 87(3), p.272-287. Publisher: Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK, United States. ISSN: 1527-1404
Note: In English. 76 refs.; illus., incl. sketch map
Summary: At Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 Site U1352, east of the South Island New Zealand, we continuously cored a 1927-m-thick Holocene-to-Eocene section where we can uniquely document downhole changes in induration and lithification in siliciclastic to calcareous fine-grained sediment using a wide range of petrological, physical-property, and geochemical data sets. Porosity decreases from around 50% at the surface to 5-10% at the base of the deepest hole, with a corresponding increase in density from ∼ 2 to ∼ 2.5 g cm3. There are progressive bulk mineral changes with depth, including an increase in carbonate and decrease in quartz and clay content. Grain compaction is first seen in thin section at 347 m below sea floor and intensifies downhole. Pressure solution (chemical compaction) begins at 380 m and is common below 1440 m, with stylolite development below 1600 m, and sediment injection features below 1680 m. Porewater geochemistry and petrographic observations document two active zones of cementation, one shallow (eogenetic) down to ∼ 50 m, as evidenced by micritic nodules and pore-water geochemistry driven by methane oxidation by sulfate, and another burial-related cementation zone (mesogenetic) starting at ∼ 300 m. A transitional zone occurs between 50 and 300 m. Our results quantify downhole diagenetic changes and verify depth estimates for these processes inferred from outcrop studies, and provide an actualistic example of cementation and compaction trends in a slope setting.
Year of Publication: 2017
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 06 Petrology, Sedimentary; Australasia; Canterbury Basin; Carbonate rocks; Carbonate sediments; Cementation; Cenozoic; Clastic rocks; Clastic sediments; Compaction; Diagenesis; Eocene; Expedition 317; Holocene; IODP Site U1352; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; New Zealand; Pacific Ocean; Paleogene; Quaternary; Sedimentary rocks; Sediments; South Island; South Pacific; Southwest Pacific; Tertiary; West Pacific
Coordinates: S445615 S445615 E1720122 E1720122
Record ID: 2017091971
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2017 American Geosciences Institute.