Astronomical tunings of the Oligocene-Miocene transition from Pacific Ocean Site U1334 and implications for the carbon cycle

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doi: 10.5194/cp-14-255-2018
Author(s): Beddow, Helen M.; Liebrand, Diederik; Wilson, Douglas S.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Sluijs, Appy; Wade, Bridget S.; Lourens, Lucas J.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Utrecht University, Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht, Netherlands
PalaeoClimate.Science, Netherlands
University of California at Santa Barbara, United States
University College London, United Kingdom
Volume Title: Climate of the Past
Source: Climate of the Past, 14(3), p.255-270. Publisher: Copernicus, Katlenburg-Lindau, International. ISSN: 1814-9324
Note: In English. 62 refs.; illus., incl. 2 tables
Summary: Astronomical tuning of sediment sequences requires both unambiguous cycle pattern recognition in climate proxy records and astronomical solutions, as well as independent information about the phase relationship between these two. Here we present two different astronomically tuned age models for the Oligocene-Miocene transition (OMT) from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1334 (equatorial Pacific Ocean) to assess the effect tuning has on astronomically calibrated ages and the geologic timescale. These alternative age models (roughly from ∼ 22 to ∼ 24 Ma) are based on different tunings between proxy records and eccentricity: the first age model is based on an aligning CaCO3 weight (wt%) to Earth's orbital eccentricity, and the second age model is based on a direct age calibration of benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to eccentricity. To independently test which tuned age model and associated tuning assumptions are in best agreement with independent ages based on tectonic plate-pair spreading rates, we assign the tuned ages to magnetostratigraphic reversals identified in deep-marine magnetic anomaly profiles. Subsequently, we compute tectonic plate-pair spreading rates based on the tuned ages. The resultant alternative spreading-rate histories indicate that the CaCO3 tuned age model is most consistent with a conservative assumption of constant, or linearly changing, spreading rates. The CaCO3 tuned age model thus provides robust ages and durations for polarity chrons C6Bn.1n-C7n.1r, which are not based on astronomical tuning in the latest iteration of the geologic timescale. Furthermore, it provides independent evidence that the relatively large (several 10,000 years) time lags documented in the benthic foraminiferal isotope records relative to orbital eccentricity constitute a real feature of the Oligocene-Miocene climate system and carbon cycle. The age constraints from Site U1334 thus indicate that the delayed responses of the Oligocene-Miocene climate-cryosphere system and (marine) carbon cycle resulted from highly non-linear feedbacks to astronomical forcing.
Year of Publication: 2018
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
ODP Ocean Drilling Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Age; C-13/C-12; Calcium carbonate; Carbon; Carbon cycle; Cenozoic; Climate forcing; Coulometry; Data processing; East Pacific; Eccentricity; Expedition 320; Expeditions 320/321; Fast Fourier transforms; Foraminifera; Fourier analysis; Geochemical cycle; IODP Site U1334; Integrated Ocean Drilling Program; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Leg 154; Leg 177; Leg 199; Leg 208; Magnetic anomalies; Magnetic properties; Magnetic susceptibility; Magnetostratigraphy; Microfossils; Miocene; Models; Neogene; North Pacific; Northeast Pacific; O-18/O-16; ODP Site 1090; ODP Site 1218; ODP Site 1264; ODP Site 926; ODP Site 929; Ocean Drilling Program; Oligocene; Orbital forcing; Oxygen; Pacific Ocean; Paleoclimatology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Paleomagnetism; Plate tectonics; Rates; Reversals; Sea-floor spreading; Spectra; Spreading centers; Stable isotopes; Statistical analysis; Tertiary
Coordinates: N080000 N080000 W1315824 W1315824
Record ID: 2018052276
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2020 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from Copernicus Gesellschaft, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany