Carbonate delta drift; a new sediment drift type

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doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2018.04.011
Author(s): Lüdmann, Thomas; Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Reolid, Jesús; Reijmer, John J. G.; Sloss, Craig R.; Bialik, Or M.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.; Alonso-Garcia, Montserrat; Blättler, Clara L.; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sébastien; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Kroon, Dick; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Mee, Anna Ling Hui; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Nath, B. Nagender; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M.; Pratiwi, Santi D.; Slagle, Angela L.; Su, Xiang; Swart, Peter K.; Wright, James D.; Yao, Zhengquan; Young, Jeremy R.
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Hamburg, Institute of Geology, Hamburg, Germany
Other:
University of Miami, United States
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia
University of Technology Queensland, Australia
University of Haifa, Israel
Texas A&M University, United States
Instituto Portugues do Mar e da Atmosfera, Portugal
Princeton University, United States
California State University at Bakersfield, United States
Université de Lorraine, France
Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, South Korea
Okayama University, Japan
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Universita di Urbino, Italy
Soka University, Japan
National Institute of Oceanography, India
Yamagata University, Japan
George Mason University, United States
Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, United States
Chinese Academy of Sciences, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, China
Rutgers University at Piscataway, United States
First Institute of Oceanography, China
University College London, United Kingdom
Volume Title: Marine Geology
Source: Marine Geology, Vol.401, p.98-111. Publisher: Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ISSN: 0025-3227 CODEN: MAGEA6
Note: In English. 51 refs.; illus., incl. sects., sketch map
Summary: Based on high-resolution reflection seismic and core data from IODP Expedition 359 we present a new channel-related drift type attached to a carbonate platform slope, which we termed delta drift. Like a river delta, it is comprised of several stacked lobes and connected to a point source. The delta drifts were deposited at the exit of two gateways that connect the Inner Sea of the Maldives carbonate platform with the open ocean. The channels served as conduits focusing and accelerating the water flow; Entrained material was deposited at their mouth where the flows relaxed. The lobe-shaped calcareous sediment drifts must have formed under persistent water through flow. Sediment supply was relatively high and continuous, resulting in an average sedimentation rate of 17 cm ka-1. The two delta drifts occupy 342 and 384 km2, respectively; with a depositional relief of approximately 500 m. They have a sigmoidal clinoform reflection pattern with a particular convex upward bending of the foresets. In the Maldives the drift onset marks the transition from a sea-level controlled to a progressively current dominated depositional regime. This major event occurred in the Serravallian about 13 Ma ago, leading to the partial drowning of the carbonate platform and the creation of shallow seaways. The initial bank-enclosed topography resembles an "empty bucket" geometry which is rapidly filled by the drift sediments that aggrade and prograde into the basin. Thereby the depositional environment of the delta drifts changes from deep water (>500) to shallow-water conditions at their topsets, indicated by the overall coarsening upward trend in grain size and the presence of shallow water large benthic foraminifers at their top.
Year of Publication: 2018
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Biostratigraphy; Bottom currents; Carbonate platforms; Carbonate rocks; Carbonate sediments; Cenozoic; Clastic sediments; Currents; Expedition 359; Foraminifera; Geophysical methods; Geophysical profiles; Geophysical surveys; IODP Site U1465; IODP Site U1466; IODP Site U1468; IODP Site U1470; IODP Site U1471; IODP Site U1472; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean Islands; International Ocean Discovery Program; Lithostratigraphy; Maldive Islands; Marine sediments; Microfossils; Miocene; Neogene; Pliocene; Quaternary; Sedimentary rocks; Sediments; Seismic methods; Seismic profiles; Seismic stratigraphy; Surveys; Tertiary; Well logs
Coordinates: N044600 N045600 E0730500 E0725700
Record ID: 2018059572
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from CAPCAS, Elsevier Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands