Formation of early-middle Miocene red beds in the South China Sea; element geochemistry and mineralogy analysis

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http://abstractsearch.agu.org/meetings/2017/FM/T33A-0699.html
Author(s): Lyu Xuan; Liu Zhifei
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Tongji University, Laboratory of Marine Geology, Shanghai, China
Volume Title: AGU 2017 fall meeting
Source: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, Vol.2017; American Geophysical Union 2017 fall meeting, New Orleans, LA, Dec. 11-15, 2017. Publisher: American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, United States
Note: In English
Summary: The formation of oceanic red beds that usually present oxic and oligotrophic conditions with low sedimentation rate has been used to trace depositional paleoenvironment and paleoclimate change. Red beds overlying oceanic basalts were drilled at two adjacent Sites U1433 and U1434 of IODP Expedition 349 in the Southwest Subbasin of the South China Sea. The occurrence of early-middle Miocene red beds may indicate that at that time there was oxic and quiet marine environment in the deep South China Sea. To understand their formation of red-color, local depositional condition, and potential paleoceanographic significance, major elements (XRF), trace and rare earth elements (ICP-MS), Fe chemical speciation (modified sequential iron extraction procedure), and Fe oxic minerals (CBD and DRS) were analyzed. Geochemical and mineralogical data reveal that hematite and goethite are responsible for the reddish color and red beds were deposited under highly oxic, oligotrophic conditions with a little later hydrothermal influence in the South China Sea. Our results indicate that: (1) after treatment using the CBD procedure, the red samples presented a change in color to greenish, showing the iron oxides being responsible for the sediment color; (2) enriched Mn, depleted U, S enrichment factors, and negative Ce anomaly show that the water mass was pre-oxidized before transported to the study location; (3) low primary productivity was inferred from the lower P, Ba enrichment factors in red beds compared to non-red beds; (4) the excess Mo influx at the bottom may come from the later hydrothermal input; (5) the diverse Ca enrichment factors and correlations between Fe and Al suggest different allogenic sources for red beds at our two sites. We conclude that the red beds at Sites U1433 and U1434 despite their diverse sources both developed in externally oxidized water mass and low primary productivity conditions, and partially altered by hydrothermal fluids after their pelagic deposition. In the Miocene, the South China Sea was open to the western Pacific, and our study suggests an oxidized deepwater environment in the Pacific during the Miocene.
Year of Publication: 2017
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Cenozoic; Chemical composition; Clastic rocks; Expedition 349; Geochemistry; IODP Site U1433; IODP Site U1434; International Ocean Discovery Program; Mineral composition; Miocene; Neogene; North Pacific; Northwest Pacific; Pacific Ocean; Red beds; Sedimentary rocks; South China Sea; Tertiary; West Pacific
Coordinates: N125508 N125508 E1150251 E1150250
N131130 N131131 E1145524 E1145524
Record ID: 2018080000
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