Insights into impact processes and extinction mechanisms from IODP-ICDP Chicxulub Crater drilling

Author(s): Gulick, Sean P. S.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail L.; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles S.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Green, Sophie; Jones, Heather L.; Kring, David A.; Lofi, Johanna; Lowery, Christopher; Ocampo-Torres, Ruben; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael H.; Rae, Auriol S. P.; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Doug; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Wittmann, Axel; Xiao, Long; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.; Vellekoop, Johan; Neal, C. R.; Grice, Kliti; Ormo, Jens; Melosh, Jay; Collins, Gareth S.; Rodriguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schmieder, Martin; Snedden, John; Freeman, Katherine H.; Hall, Brendon; Smith, Vann; Grieve, Richard A. F.; Koeberl, Christian; Goderis, Steven; Nixon, Chris; Vajda, Vivi; Warny, Sophie; Schulte, Felix; Artemieva, Natalia; Sluijs, Appy; McCall, Naoma; Schaefer, Bettina; Diaw, Abdoulaye; Lyons, Shelby; O'Malley, Katherine E.; Gattacceca, Jerome; Quesnel, Yoann; Ross, Catherine; Feignon, Jean-Guillaume
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Geophysics, Austin, TX, United States
Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Pennsylvania State University, United States
Université de Bourgogne-Franche Comté, France
Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Curtin University, Australia
Natural History Museum, Austria
Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre of Polar and Marine Research, Germany
Volume Title: Geological Society of America, 2018 annual meeting & exposition
Source: Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America, 50(6); Geological Society of America, 2018 annual meeting & exposition, Indianapolis, IN, Nov. 4-7, 2018. Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0016-7592 CODEN: GAAPBC
Note: In English
Summary: In 2016, 835 m of core was recovered from the Chicxulub impact structure through IODP-ICDP Expedition 364. Analyses done on these cores, downhole logs, and geophysical site survey data have led to a series of advancements to our understanding of impact cratering processes and to how the Chicxulub impact affected the Earth's environment leading to the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Here, we highlight the current findings and suggest the next phase of investigations set up by Expedition 364. Key results in terms of impact crater processes include: 1) dynamic collapse model for large impact crater formation essentially validated; 2) unprecedented insights into deformation mechanisms imparted by shock and release as well as cratering at variable length and time scales, collectively corroborating the acoustic fluidization hypothesis; 3) direct measurements and analyses of shocked target rocks to provide an explanation for the large reductions in density and enhancements in porosity generated by impacts; and 4) sampling and mapping of >100 m of high porosity suevite and impact melt rock as a case study of cratering processes. These cores also provided greater understanding of how impact cratering can affect life positively and negatively: 1) long term but heterogeneous hydrothermal system generated by the impact, 2) colonization of impactites by thermophiles, 3) rapid recovery of marine life within the flooded Chicxulub crater basin, 4) direct evidence of impact tsunami and wildfires, and 5) evidence of significant sulfate aerosol production from the impact site affecting the global environment, possibly causing the delay in terrestrial vegetation recovery. Future research on Exp. 364 data will focus on kinematics of deformation, modeling the hydrothermal system, impact thermochronology, examining the 3D complexity of impactite deposition, modeling the impact tsunami with updated paleogeography, identification of impactor signatures, geochemical insights into oceanographic effects of ejecta, and using the Chicxulub basin to study Paleocene and Eocene environment and ecology among other topics. Lastly, we've identified additional drilling targets to further address the above questions based on the remarkably rich dataset provided by this single offshore drill site.
Year of Publication: 2018
Research Program: IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; Atlantic Ocean; Cenozoic; Chicxulub Crater; Cretaceous; Expedition 364; Gulf of Mexico; Impacts; International Ocean Discovery Program; K-Pg boundary; Lower Paleocene; Marine environment; Mass extinctions; Mesozoic; North Atlantic; Paleocene; Paleoecology; Paleoenvironment; Paleogene; Stratigraphic boundary; Tertiary; Upper Cretaceous
Coordinates: N212701 N212701 W0895658 W0895658
Record ID: 2019033569
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States