Large-scale mass wasting on the Miocene continental margin of western India

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doi: 10.1130/B35158.1
Author(s): Dailey, Sarah K.; Clift, Peter D.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Routledge, Claire M.; Calvès, Gérôme; O'Sullivan, Paul; Jonell, Tara N.; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Ando, Sergio; Coletti, Giovanni; Zhou, Peng; Li, Yuting; Neubeck, Nikki E.; Bendle, James A. P.; Aharonovich, Sophia; Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Gurumurthy, Gundiga P.; Hahn, Annette; Iwai, Masao; Khim, Boo-Keun; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, A. Ganesh; Liddy, Hannah M.; Lu Huayu; Lyle, Mitchell W.; Mishra, Ravi; Radhakrishna, Tallavajhala; Saraswat, Rajeev; Saxena, Rakesh; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sharma, Girish K.; Singh, Arun D.; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Tauxe, Lisa; Tiwari, Manish; Xu Zhaokai; Yu Zhaojie
Author Affiliation(s): Primary:
Louisiana State University, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Baton Rouge, LA, United States
Texas A&M University, United States
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, United States
University College London, United Kingdom
Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, France
GeoSep Services, United States
University of Queensland, Australia
National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, India
University of Milan Bicocca, Italy
Purdue University, United States
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Macquarie University, Australia
Ohio State University, United States
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, India
University of Bremen, Germany
Kochi University, Japan
Pusan National University, South Korea
Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, India
National Institute of Ocean Technology, India
Columbia University, United States
Nanjing University, China
Oregon State University, United States
National Centre for Earth Science Studies, India
National Institute of Oceanography, India
Oil and Natural Gas Commission, India
Universidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil
Kumaun University, India
Banaras Hindu University, India
Xiamen University, China
Hokkaido University, Japan
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, United States
Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, China
Volume Title: Geological Society of America Bulletin
Source: Geological Society of America Bulletin, Vol.(Pre-Issue Publication). Publisher: Geological Society of America (GSA), Boulder, CO, United States. ISSN: 0016-7606 CODEN: BUGMAF
Note: In English. 136 refs.; illus., incl. sects., 6 tables, geol. sketch map
Summary: A giant mass-transport complex was recently discovered in the eastern Arabian Sea, exceeding in volume all but one other known complex on passive margins worldwide. The complex, named the Nataraja Slide, was drilled by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 in two locations where it is ∼300 m (Site U1456) and ∼200 m thick (Site U1457). The top of this mass-transport complex is defined by the presence of both reworked microfossil assemblages and deformation structures, such as folding and faulting. The deposit consists of two main phases of mass wasting, each consisting of smaller pulses, with generally fining-upward cycles, all emplaced just prior to 10.8 Ma based on biostratigraphy. The base of the deposit at each site is composed largely of matrix-supported carbonate breccia that is interpreted as the product of debris-flows. In the first phase, these breccias alternate with well-sorted calcarenites deposited from a high-energy current, coherent limestone blocks that are derived directly from the Indian continental margin, and a few clastic mudstone beds. In the second phase, at the top of the deposit, muddy turbidites dominate and become increasingly more siliciclastic. At Site U1456, where both phases are seen, a 20-m section of hemipelagic mudstone is present, overlain by a ∼40-m-thick section of calcarenite and slumped interbedded mud and siltstone. Bulk sediment geochemistry, heavy-mineral analysis, clay mineralogy, isotope geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages constrain the provenance of the clastic, muddy material to being reworked, Indus-derived sediment, with input from western Indian rivers (e.g., Narmada and Tapti rivers), and some material from the Deccan Traps. The carbonate blocks found within the breccias are shallow-water limestones from the outer western Indian continental shelf, which was oversteepened from enhanced clastic sediment delivery during the mid-Miocene. The final emplacement of the material was likely related to seismicity as there are modern intraplate earthquakes close to the source of the slide. Although we hypothesize that this area is at low risk for future mass wasting events, it should be noted that other oversteepened continental margins around the world could be at risk for mass failure as large as the Nataraja Slide.
Year of Publication: 2019
Research Program: IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program
IODP2 International Ocean Discovery Program
Key Words: 12 Stratigraphy, Historical Geology and Paleoecology; 20 Geophysics, Applied; Absolute age; Alkaline earth metals; Arabian Sea; Asia; Biostratigraphy; Cenozoic; Clay minerals; Continental margin; Cores; Dates; Debris flows; Depositional environment; Expedition 355; Geochemistry; Geophysical methods; Geophysical profiles; Geophysical surveys; Heavy minerals; IODP Site U1456; IODP Site U1457; India; Indian Ocean; Indian Peninsula; International Ocean Discovery Program; Isotope ratios; Isotopes; Laxmi Basin; Lithofacies; Lithostratigraphy; Marine environment; Mass movements; Metals; Microfacies; Microfossils; Miocene; Nannofossils; Nataraja Slide; Nd-144/Nd-143; Neodymium; Neogene; Nesosilicates; Orthosilicates; Provenance; Rare earths; Sedimentary rocks; Seismic methods; Seismic profiles; Seismic stratigraphy; Seismicity; Sheet silicates; Silicates; Slumping; Sr-87/Sr-86; Stable isotopes; Strontium; Surveys; Tertiary; Turbidite; U/Pb; Western India; Zircon; Zircon group
Coordinates: N163717 N163718 E0685021 E0685020
N170957 N170957 E0675549 E0675548
Record ID: 2019046857
Copyright Information: GeoRef, Copyright 2019 American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States, Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America